Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Vaccination with embryonic stem cells prevents lung cancer in mice

09.11.2006
Researchers in America have discovered that vaccinating mice with embryonic stem cells prevented lung cancer in those animals that had had cancer cells transplanted into them after the vaccination or that had been exposed to cancer-causing chemicals.

The findings suggest that it could be possible to develop embryonic stem cell vaccines that prevent cancers in humans, such as hereditary breast and colon cancer and lung cancer caused by smoking or other environmental factors.

Professor John Eaton told a news briefing at the EORTC-NCI-AACR [1] Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Prague today (Wednesday 8 November): “We found that the vaccinations were between 80-100% effective in preventing tumour growth in mice that were subsequently challenged with transplanted Lewis lung carcinoma, and it was between 60-90% effective in mice subsequently exposed to carcinogens that cause lung cancer.

“Our results raise the exciting possibility of developing a prophylactic vaccine capable of preventing the appearance of various types of cancers in humans, especially those with hereditary, chronological or environmental predispositions to neoplastic disease.”

However, he warned that the work was still in its early stages and that people should not think that, for instance, they could start, or carry on, smoking because a vaccine to prevent lung cancer was just around the corner.

“Cancer has been prevented and even cured in mice hundreds of times. At present, all I can say is that so far it looks good, and that, unless something unexpected happens, this strategy might some day be applied to humans at high risk for development of cancer. The likelihood of this happening is more a question for the US Food and Drug Agency than for us. Given their stringent regulations I consider it quite likely that, by the time this is tried in humans, I will be pushing up daisies.”

Prof Eaton is the James Graham Brown Professor of Cancer Biology and Deputy Director of the James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, USA. He and his colleague, Dr Robert Mitchell, tested two different vaccines in the mice. One consisted of embryonic stem cells (ESC) only, obtained from mouse blastocysts (very early, pre-implantation embryos). The other vaccine consisted of the ESCs combined with cultured fibroblast cells producing GM-CSF, a growth factor usually made by white blood cells and blood vessel-lining endothelial cells, which “supercharges” the immune response and appears to enhance the vaccine-induced immunity to cancer.

Prof Eaton explained: “We needed a delivery vehicle for GM-CSF and chose STO fibroblasts because they are often used as a 'feeder layer' to maintain these particular mouse embryonic stem cells in their embryonic state. If we had used only ESCs expressing GM-CSF, they might have differentiated into non-embryonic cells, which, therefore, would not have worked as a vaccine.”

He and his team injected mice with ESCs alone or ESCs + STO/GM-CSF. In mice that had Lewis lung carcinoma transplanted into them afterwards, ESCs were 80% effective in preventing tumour growth and ESCs + STO/GM-CSF were 100% effective. In mice subsequently exposed to a carcinogen that causes lung cancer (3-methylcholanthrene followed by repetitive dosing with butylated hydroxytoluene), ESCs resulted in 60% of mice remaining tumour free after 27 weeks and ESC + STO/GM-CSF resulted in 90% remaining tumour free. Importantly, tumours arising in vaccinated mice were, on average, about 80-90% smaller than tumours in unvaccinated mice. All the unvaccinated mice developed tumours. None of the vaccinated mice developed autoimmune disease or a showed a significant decline in adult pluripotent bone marrow stem cells – both potential adverse responses to the vaccinations.

Prof Eaton said: “We think the results from the carcinogen-initiated cancers are probably the most important, as they are closer to the ‘real-life’ model of the development of cancer than just implanting cancer cells in an animal. We are studying several different types of carcinogen-induced mouse cancers (skin, colon, breast) to determine whether the preventative effect of vaccination extends beyond our models of lung cancer (although in our state of Kentucky with its high smoking rates, lung cancer alone would be a big victory). We may also vaccinate ageing rodents, the majority of which develop endocrine tumours in old age.

“In terms of human testing, if all goes well, then I think this vaccination might best be tested in women at high (genetic) risk of breast cancer, in people with high (genetic) risk of colon cancer and, perhaps, in smokers.

“Our progress over the next few years will depend, to a large extent, on whether we can attract significant funding. Our work is presently supported by a pilot grant from our cancer centre and a small grant from the Kentucky Lung Cancer Research Program. US federal funding agencies such as the NIH – notorious for funding predictable research – have been quite disinterested.”

[1]EORTC [European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, NCI [National Cancer Institute], AACR [American Association for Cancer Research].

Emma Mason | alfa
Further information:
http://www.eortc.org

Further reports about: ESC Embryonic embryonic stem cell lung cancer prevent tumour vaccination

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Transport of molecular motors into cilia
28.03.2017 | Aarhus University

nachricht Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias
28.03.2017 | University of California - Riverside

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers shoot for success with simulations of laser pulse-material interactions

29.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Igniting a solar flare in the corona with lower-atmosphere kindling

29.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

As sea level rises, much of Honolulu and Waikiki vulnerable to groundwater inundation

29.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>