Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Metagenomics of the Ocean's Viral Species

07.11.2006
Hundreds of thousands of viral species present in the world’s oceans

The ocean is full of life—large, small, and microscopic. Bacteriophage (phage) viruses are minute, self-replicating bundles that alter microorganisms’ genetic material and moderate their communities through predation and parasitism. Despite their small size, they are astoundingly abundant with about as many of them in a bucket full of seawater as there are humans on the planet. As a result, they can have a huge impact ecologically.

In a new study published online this week in the open access journal PLoS Biology, Florent Angly, Forest Rohwer, and colleagues detail their metagenomic study of the diversity of bacteriophage present in water samples collected from 68 sites over 10 years from four oceanic regions (the Sargasso Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, British Columbia coastal waters, and the Arctic Ocean). They use pyrosequencing (a technique that enables collection of many DNA sequence reads for less cost than conventional sequencing) to large samples, rather than individual organisms to gain insights into diversity, geography, taxonomy, and ecosystem functioning. This approach identified tremendous viral diversity with greater than 91% of DNA sequences not present in existing databases.

Angly and colleagues analyzed the distribution of marine phages among the sampling sites and found a correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance of viral species, supporting the idea that the marine virome varies from region to region. They also investigated how similar the viromes from each location were—in fact, the differences were mostly explained by variations in relative abundance of the viral species, and supports the notion that although everything is everywhere, the environment selects.

... more about:
»Viral »species »virome

Overall, they saw that samples from the British Columbia coast were the most genetically diverse (consistent with its nutrient-rich environment). The other three samples showed increasing diversity with decreasing latitude, a trend that parallels previous findings from terrestrial ecosystems. In fact, the researchers predict that the world’s oceans hold a few hundred thousand broadly distributed viral species, with some species-rich regions likely harboring the majority of these species.

Citation: Angly F, Felts B, Breitbart M, Salamon P, Edwards R, et al. (2006) The marine viromes of four oceanic regions. PLoS Biol 4(11): e368. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.

Andrew Hyde | alfa
Further information:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040368
http://www.plosbiology.org

Further reports about: Viral species virome

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Bare bones: Making bones transparent
27.04.2017 | California Institute of Technology

nachricht Link Discovered between Immune System, Brain Structure and Memory
26.04.2017 | Universität Basel

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Bare bones: Making bones transparent

27.04.2017 | Life Sciences

Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions

27.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

From volcano's slope, NASA instrument looks sky high and to the future

27.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>