Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

World’s tiniest test tubes get teensiest corks

12.05.2006
Now all they need is a really, really small corkscrew.

Like Lilliputian chemists, scientists have found a way to “cork” infinitesimally small nano test tubes. The goal is a better way to deliver drugs, for example, for cancer treatment. Scientists want to fill the teeny tubes with drugs and inject them into the body, where they will seek diseased or cancerous cells, uncork and spill their therapeutic contents in the right place.


“After making the nano test tubes, we saw the potential for them to be used for drug delivery vehicles, but because they are open at one end it would be like trying to ship wine in a bottle without a cork,” said University of Florida chemistry professor Charles Martin. “You have to cork it, which is what we have accomplished.”

Martin is one of six University of Florida chemistry faculty members and graduate students who co-authored a paper about the research that appeared last month in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

While chemotherapy works against many cancers, it can cause severe side effects such as nausea, temporary hair loss and blood disease. To make the chemo hit only the cancerous cells, Martin and scientists elsewhere have spent recent years experimenting with drug-carrying nanotubes or nanoparticles.

“Nano” stems from nanotechnology, the fast-growing science of making objects or devices that approach molecular dimensions. One nanometer equals one-billionth of a meter.

The approach makes sense for attacking diseased cells while bypassing healthy ones, but it also poses challenges. For one thing, the nanotubes must recognize their target, a problem scientists are attacking by tweaking their chemistry to make it respond to the unique chemistry of cancer cells. The tubes also must be biologically benign. Martin says a method for making nanotubes he pioneered, template synthesis, allows manufacturers to use biodegradable material, such as the polylactides that compose biodegradable sutures.

Additionally, the tubes also had to be closed at one end to form the classic test tube shape, a problem Martin and his group solved in research published in 2004.

To “cork” the test tubes in the latest research, the researchers applied an amino chemical group to the mouth of the tubes and an aldehyde chemical group to the corks. The two groups are complementary, so they bond with one another.

Billions of nanotubes could fit on a postage stamp. So, said Martin, “we don’t put individual caps in each nanotube the way corking machines do for bottles.”

Instead, the scientists immerse a small mesh that holds millions of amino-modified nanotubes, all precisely lined up in a grid pattern, into a solution imbued with millions of the corks. Brownian motion — what happens when minute particles immersed in a fluid move about randomly — takes care of the rest. The corks simply float around, then slip into the mouths of the tubes as they encounter them.

The diameter of the tubes is about 80 nanometers, or 80-billionths of a meter. Even though they are tiny, each tube can hold about 5 million drug molecules. “Each tube packs a real punch in terms of the number of drug molecules it can deliver,” Martin said.

Sang Bok Lee, an assistant professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Maryland, works on similar research. He said scientists have proposed capping the tubes using chemical interactions between the drugs and the tubes. But that might not work because the tube could leak before it reaches its target.

“I strongly agree that Professor Martin’s proposed strategy will be one of the ideal solutions for the problem of controlling drug uptake and release,” he said in an e-mail.

The UF scientists aren’t there yet. There’s no easy way to unlock the amino chemical group from the aldehyde chemical group. So while Martin says there are some promising possibilities, he and his colleagues have their next job cut out for them: figuring out how to uncork the tubes.

Charles Martin | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.chem.ufl.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Flavins keep a handy helper in their pocket
25.04.2018 | University of Freiburg

nachricht Complete skin regeneration system of fish unraveled
24.04.2018 | Tokyo Institute of Technology

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.

Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...

Im Focus: Molecules Brilliantly Illuminated

Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.

Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

Im Focus: Gamma-ray flashes from plasma filaments

Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.

The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Getting electrons to move in a semiconductor

25.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Reconstructing what makes us tick

25.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Cheap 3-D printer can produce self-folding materials

25.04.2018 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>