Despite aggressive treatment, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) – the most common and deadly of brain cancers – usually claims the lives of its victims within six to 12 months of diagnosis. Because GBM is so aggressive, the disease has been the target of a number of laboratory and clinical studies investigating the effectiveness of gene therapy to deliver novel therapies to the brain. In laboratory studies, this type of gene therapy has proved almost completely effective. But in clinical trials, it has had limited effectiveness.
To overcome these limitations, researchers at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center developed a large brain tumor model in laboratory rats that would more accurately predict the outcome of gene therapies in patients. In addition, they tested a genetically engineered virus to deliver two proteins directly to the brain. Their findings, reported in the August 15th issue of the journal Cancer Research, show that the majority of rats bearing large tumors were still alive six months after combined treatment with two proteins: RAdTK, a protein that kills cancer cells, and RAdFlt3L, which stimulates immune or dendritic cells in the brain.
"Our study shows that GBM tumors were completely eliminated in lab rats, likely because the two proteins increase the production of fully mature immune cells within the brain," said Maria Castro, Ph.D., co-director of the Gene Therapeutics Research Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and the senior author of the study. "This suggests that combined RAdFlt3L and RAdTK gene therapy may ultimately provide an effective treatment for patients undergoing clinical trials with GBM."
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An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
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A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
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