Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

High-powered gene profiles provide clues to genes involved in common form of lung cancer

28.06.2005


Using technology that makes it possible to zoom in on smaller sections of cell chromosomes than ever before, researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have identified nearly 100 chromosome regions where genes are either over-copied or missing in non-small cell lung cancer. The findings provide new clues about the location of genes potentially involved in the most common type of lung cancer –– and one of the deadliest of all malignancies –– and a range of possible targets for future therapies.



The study will be reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences’ Online Early Edition the week of June 27.

"Previous studies have identified a small set of mutated, or abnormal, genes that are associated with non-small cell lung cancer," says the study’s lead author, Giovanni Tonon, MD, PhD, of Dana-Farber. "But we also know that the chromosomes of these cells contain a large number of irregular regions –– where genes have either been deleted or copied over and over again –– which suggests that a large number of cancer genes remain to be discovered. The purpose of this study was to locate the likeliest candidates."


The study is part of a renewed effort by scientists worldwide to uncover the basic biology of lung cancer, the number one cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 75 percent of all lung cancers and is responsible for nearly 120,000 deaths in this country annually. It is one of the most difficult cancers to treat, with only 15 percent of patients surviving more than five years after diagnosis.

In recent years, technological advances have brought new precision to the search for gene abnormalities associated with cancer. In the current study, Dana-Farber researchers used two forms of microarray technology to bring such abnormalities into focus.

Using tumor samples from 44 NSCLC patients and 34 laboratory-grown lines of NSCLC cells, investigators scanned the cells with high-resolution cDNA (oligonucleotide) microarray equipment to find chromosome regions containing unusual numbers of gene copies. The technology, developed in conjunction with Agilent Technologies, was 50-100 times more powerful than had been used on NSCLC cells in the past, enabling researchers to identify irregular sites more precisely. They found a total of 93 regions, each containing about 11 genes, where gene deletions or over-copying had occurred.

Researchers re-analyzed the tumor and cell samples with the latest oligonucleotide expression microarray technology from Affymetrix, which indicates if individual genes are active. Using this data, they scanned the genes in these 93 regions to see if any were missing (and inactive) or present in unusually large amounts (and therefore highly active) in deleted or overcopied regions, respectively. This enabled them to narrow the search for genes that were the targets of the irregular regions. Intriguingly, all of the genes already known to be involved in NSCLC reside within the abnormal regions identified by the Dana-Farber team.

"This is compelling evidence that we’re on the right track," says the study’s other first author, Kwok-Kin Wong, MD, PhD, of Dana-Farber. "It’s likely that the genetic mutations already linked to NSCLC constitute only a portion of all the genetic errors that drive the disease. Our work provides a good starting point for scientists looking for others."

As part of the study, investigators did microarray analyses on the two major subtypes of NSCLC, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and found that their genomic profiles overlap in every area but one: squamous cell carcinomas contain an area of gene amplification, or over-copying, not found in adenocarcinomas. Among the few genes in that area is one called p63, which is known to play a role in the ability of skin cells to reproduce. The new finding raises the possibility that adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma arise from an error in the same cell type and are driven to malignancy by similar genetic routes, the study authors say.

Finally, the researchers compared their data for NSCLC with similar data for pancreatic cancer, and found that both diseases have some chromosomal irregularities in common, suggesting that in both disorders, some of the same genes may be driving the tumors.

Bill Schaller | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.dfci.harvard.edu
http://www.pnas.org/papbyrecent.shtml

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Unique genome architectures after fertilisation in single-cell embryos
30.03.2017 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH

nachricht Transport of molecular motors into cilia
28.03.2017 | Aarhus University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

'On-off switch' brings researchers a step closer to potential HIV vaccine

30.03.2017 | Health and Medicine

Penn studies find promise for innovations in liquid biopsies

30.03.2017 | Health and Medicine

An LED-based device for imaging radiation induced skin damage

30.03.2017 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>