Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Making sense of the human genome: researchers characterize a crucial family of signaling proteins in the human genome

23.08.2002


In this month’s Genome Biology, Mitch Kostich and colleagues from the Schering-Plough Research Institute (NJ, USA) have identified and mapped an important group of molecules known as protein kinases. These molecules are central to the communication of information both within and between cells, in a process known as cell signaling. Defective protein kinases are associated with hundreds of human diseases, including some types of cancer, and it is hoped that this map, which shows the relationships between 510 human protein kinases, will help researchers find new drugs that can specifically target diseases caused by a defective protein kinase, as well as unlocking the secrets of 60 previously unidentified members of this family.



If our bodies are to work properly, it is important that cells are doing the right thing at the right time. To get things right, the human body has evolved complex signaling pathways that allow our molecules to communicate with each other. Protein kinases are a central part of many signaling pathways, helping to regulate virtually every function in human cells. They belong to a class of biological molecules known as enzymes, which help all the chemical reactions in our bodies to go according to plan. All protein kinases carry out the same function: they transfer a cluster of atoms, known as a phosphoryl group between different molecules. The movement of a phosphoryl group is similar to the flick of a switch that causes a biochemical pathway go slower or faster.

Kostich and his colleagues searched the publicly available sequence databases to find sequences with similarity to known protein kinase molecules. After removals of duplicates and pseudogenes (genes that are not used), they found 510 sequences that were similar to known protein kinases, of which 60 were previously unidentified. Confident that all 510 sequences coded for protein kinases, they constructed a tree-like diagram known as a phenogram, which maps the relationship between different protein kinases based on the differences in their sequence. This phenogram shows that there are five distinct protein kinase families, a result that is consistent with classification systems based on the functions of different protein kinases.


Understanding the relationships between different members of the protein kinase family in humans will provide researchers with important information to unravel the connections been the structure of a protein kinase and its function. The comprehensive nature of the study will also aid researchers in the design of drugs to help those suffering from disease involving defects in cell signaling. In addition, the study has uncovered 60 new protein kinases for which functions have yet to be assigned.

Gordon Fletcher | BioMed Central
Further information:
http://genomebiology.com/mkt/151/2002/3/9/research/0043
http://genomebiology.com/2002/3/9/research/0043

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>