Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Biologists surprised to find parochial bacterial viruses

06.03.2008
Intriguing find reveals more mysteries from Mexico's Cuatro Cienegas

Biologists examining ecosystems similar to those that existed on Earth more than 3 billion years ago have made a surprising discovery: Viruses that infect bacteria are sometimes parochial and unrelated to their counterparts in other regions of the globe.

The finding, published online this week by the journal Nature, is surprising because bacteria are ubiquitous on Earth. They've been found from the upper reaches of the atmosphere to miles below the ocean floor. Because of their ubiquity, scientists have long believed bacteria to be cosmopolitan, having similar genetic histories across the globe. The same was also believed to be true for phages, the viruses that infect bacteria.

"The idea that things in the microbial world can have endemic properties is relatively new," said study co-author Janet Siefert, a Rice University computational biologist who has made a half-dozen trips to one of the study sites in Mexico's remote Cuatro Ciénegas valley. "People really weren't talking about it until about a decade ago, and we certainly didn't expect to find this when we began our work in Mexico."

... more about:
»Ciénegas »Cuatro »DNA »Database »metagenome »phage »pozas

Bacteria are the dominant forms of life on Earth. They helped shape the planet's land, oceans and atmosphere for 3 billion years before the first appearance of multicellular creatures. Siefert and several of her co-authors began traveling to Cuatro Ciénegas in Mexico's Chihuahuan Desert in 2004 to study cyanobacteria living in a network of more than 200 spring-fed pools, or “pozas.” Cuatro Ciénegas' pozas have been compared to the Galapagos Islands, except that their endemic species -- at least 70 species in the valley are found nowhere else on Earth -- are separated from the rest of the world by mountains and a sea of sand rather than an ocean.

The cyanobacteria in the pozas live communally, forming coral-like structures called "stromatolites," or microbialites, that are geologically identical to 3.5 billion-year-old fossils that are believed to be the oldest evidence of life on Earth.

"We had very little funding when we started going to Cuatro Ciénegas," Siefert said. "We were taking a shot in the dark to see if we could better understand the physical, chemical and geological context of the bacterial communities and the stromatolites."

The work drew interest and seed funding from NASA's astrobiology program, which hoped the work might provide important clues about the way early life might develop on other planets.

Siefert said biogeography -- the study of species’ biodiversity and distribution across time and space -- has only recently been possible for viruses, mainly due to advancements in software and other computer tools. New sequencing technologies made it possible to analyze and geographically map the genetic differences among viral genotypes in Cuatro Ciénegas and other locations. The new study's findings contrast with previous studies that found viruses are widely dispersed on Earth and share almost the same genotypes.

Stromatolite samples collected from two pozas in 2004 were examined by several co-authors in the research group of San Diego State University biologist Forest Rohwer, who has prepared the world's largest database of phage DNA. In the first step of the tests, researchers crushed small bits of the coral-like stromatolites and extracted DNA from the samples. The DNA from each sample was decoded and compiled into a database called a "metagenome." The metagenomes from the Mexican pozas were compared with each other and with metagenomes from stromatilites in Highborne Cay, Bahamas. Finally, all three of these metagenomes were compared with Rohwer's phage database and with several large gene-sequence databases, like GenBank.

"Taken together, these results prove that viruses in modern microbialites display the variability of distribution of organisms on our planet," Rohwer said. "It also suggests that they may be derived from an ancient, microbial community."

The analyses found that the phages in the Bahamas and in both Mexican pozas shared only about 5 percent of the same DNA sequences. Moreover, the analyses revealed that the Mexican phages appeared to have evolved from ancient, ocean-going relatives. Siefert said the finding is amazing given that Cuatro Ciénegas has been cut off from the ocean for about 100 million years, but it complements prior findings of marine genetic signatures in some of Cuatro Ciénegas' other endemic species.

"Over that length of time, we would expect the marine signature to get washed out of the genetic code," she said. "In fact, when we compared the phages from the pozas to oceanic phages, we found cases where the pozas' phages were more closely related to marine relatives than were some of the phages found in other oceans."

Jade Boyd | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rice.edu

Further reports about: Ciénegas Cuatro DNA Database metagenome phage pozas

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Flow of cerebrospinal fluid regulates neural stem cell division
22.05.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Chemists at FAU successfully demonstrate imine hydrogenation with inexpensive main group metal
22.05.2018 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

Im Focus: Computer-Designed Customized Regenerative Heart Valves

Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.

Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...

Im Focus: Light-induced superconductivity under high pressure

A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.

Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Supersonic waves may help electronics beat the heat

18.05.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Keeping a Close Eye on Ice Loss

18.05.2018 | Information Technology

CrowdWater: An App for Flood Research

18.05.2018 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>