Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Biochips on guard of health

17.12.2007
Researchers of the Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, have been working for more than 20 years on designing biological microchips for efficient and quick diagnostics of tuberculosis and other diseases.

The BIOCHIP-IMB company was set up at the Institute for production of domestic microchips. During the press-tour on November 15, 2007, the researchers told journalists about progress and achievements. The project of the laboratory of biological microchips at the Institute of Molecular Biology (Russian Academy of Sciences ) is one of the winners at the contest of projects on the “Living Systems” priority direction of the Federal Target Program guided by the Federal Agency for Science and Innovations (Rosnauka).

“The main property of biological microchips is massive parallel analysis of biological material”, explains Dmitry Gryadunov, researcher of the laboratory. The biochip per se is the glass upon which multiple microcells are located, each of the cells being a miniature analogue of a test-tube, where the reaction is taking place. The cells contain the DNA-probes, each of them being able to recognize any section of the patient’s DNA. Biological material – a drop of blood or other bioliquid – is applied at the glass, and interaction occurs in microcells between the DNA-probe and the DNA section complementary to it – that is hybridization: they match each other like the key and the lock. If the reaction has taken place, luminescence occurs in the cell, the luminescence can be discovered with the help of the “Chipdetector” analyzer device.

The very first biochip was developed by the researchers of the Institute of Molecular Biology for detection of various forms of tuberculosis. Insidious mycobacteria mutate very quickly and become immune to drugs. To understand how the patient should be treated, it is necessary to know precisely which mutant form of pathogene the patient is infected with. For this purpose, biochip is simply indispensable as instead of multiple lengthy analysis it gives the opportunity to find out the answer at once via a single analysis. The DNA-probes reveal peculiarities of mycobacteria’s DNA.

“The price per analysis with the help of our biochips is about 500 Rubles, and this is several times less than that of foreign analogues, says Victor Barsky, Director General, BIOCHIP-IMB, Doctor of Biology. Now, we are producing 1,500 to 2,000 biochips per month, but in the future we are planning to pass on to 3 to 4 thousand per month. However, the demand for this diagnostics method is much higher.” Besides tuberculosis biochips, the researchers have also created other kinds of diagnostic biochips. They help to discover chromosomal abnormalities in case of different types of leucosis, to analyze varieties of influenza viruses, including, bird flu, to detect pathogens of herpes, hepatite ?, mycoplasma, cytomegalovirus with pregnant women and new-borns, predisposition to oncological diseases, including, breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases, to identify the blood groups and to reveal various drugs intolerance. Not all of the above-mentioned biochips have been certified. As Victor Barsky explains, it is particularly difficult to certify predisposition identification biochips: even provided the individual has predisposition, he/she may or may not fall ill. Therefore, tremendous statistics should be collected so that this method could be applied in clinics. So far, it is applied along with others to confirm the diagnosis.

In Russia, tuberculosis biochips are applied in 20 tuberculosis centers. Employees of these centers take method learning at the Institute. Partners and customers of the Institute of Molecular Biology are the Institute of Virology (Russian Academy of Medical Sciences), French hospital in Toulouse (the hepatite C biochip production is being developed with French colleagues), biochips and devices for analysis are delivered to Belarus, Ukraine, Kirgizia, South Korea, Brazil, and they are passing clinical trials in the USA.

The excursion to the laboratory of biological microchips was carried out by Alexander Zasedatelev, Deputy Director of the Institute, Doctor of Biology. Before entering the sterile zone for biochip production, the journalists put on disposable smocks, caps and shoe covers. The biochip “stuffing” – DNA-probes – is being produced here. In a different manufacturing premise, robots are working round the clock, without rest to methodically apply these probes into microcells under the computer control. It is good that the most laborious and lengthy part of work can be trusted to robots! However, all production is man-checked on a special device with a monitor. And after that, the biochips that have passed the checkup can be entrusted with diagnostics of human diseases. In contrast to physicians, they make no mistakes.

Nadezda Markina | alfa
Further information:
http://www.informnauka.ru

Further reports about: Analysis Applied Biochip Biology DNA-Probe Diagnostic Production Tuberculosis microchips

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel

nachricht The Nagoya Protocol Creates Disadvantages for Many Countries when Applied to Microorganisms
05.12.2016 | Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA's AIM observes early noctilucent ice clouds over Antarctica

05.12.2016 | Earth Sciences

Shape matters when light meets atom

05.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”

05.12.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>