Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New research sheds light on neuronal communication

03.12.2015

Researchers at the Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience have uncovered a critical molecule that regulates synaptic transmission

  • Neurons communicate with each other through specialized structures called synapses.
  • The information is transmitted in the form of synaptic vesicles that contain specific chemical messengers called neurotransmitters
  • The amount and coordinated release of neurotransmitters regulates synaptic strength which is critical to maintain proper communication between neurons.
  • To better understand and address a number of neurological disorders, we need a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate neuronal communication.
  • A new study has revealed an important function of a class of presynaptic proteins previously implicated in neurological disorders in the regulation of synaptic strength.

Presynaptic deletion of the two G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting proteins (GITs), GIT1 and GIT2, at the mouse calyx of Held, leads to a large increase in the action potential (AP)-evoked release, resulting in increase of synaptic strength.

Credit: Mónica S. Montesinos and Samuel M. Young Jr./Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience.

Synaptic proteins and neuronal transmission

A synapse consists of a presynaptic terminal of one neuron and a postsynaptic terminal of another. The presynaptic terminal stores vesicles containing neurotransmitters, while the postsynaptic terminal contains neurotransmitter receptors. A dense collection of proteins is present in these terminals, however the functional role of many of these proteins remains unknown.

In particular, the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting proteins (GITs) exert a critical control in synaptic transmission, since deletions of these proteins are lethal or cause sensory deficits and cognitive impairments in mice. In particular, GIT proteins and the pathways they regulate have been implicated in neurological disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Huntington's Disease. Several studies have demonstrated the role of GITs in the postsynaptic terminal, but very little is known about their role in the presynaptic terminal. Researchers in Samuel Young Jr.'s research team at the Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience set out to investigate the role of GITs in the giant synapse, the calyx of Held, of the auditory system - the optimal model to study the presynaptic terminal independently from the postsynaptic terminal.

New findings

In their December publication in Neuron, Drs. Samuel Young Jr. and Mónica S. Montesinos and collaborators report for the first time that GIT proteins are critical presynaptic regulators of synaptic strength. This study uncovers previously unknown distinct roles for GIT1 and GIT2 in regulating neurotransmitter release strength, with GIT1 as a specific regulator of presynaptic release probability. This regulation is likely to contribute to the disruptions in neural circuit functions leading to sensory disorders, memory and learning impairment and other neurological disorders.

Future Directions

Future studies of Dr. Samuel Young Jr.'s lab will resolve the mechanisms by which GITs regulate synaptic strength and their roles in the early stages of auditory processing and neurological diseases. "Our work brings significant insight into the understanding of how neuronal communication is regulated, which is essential to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of information processing by neuronal circuits and the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases," explained Dr. Young.

###

About Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience

The Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience (Jupiter, Florida, USA) specializes in the development and application of novel technologies for probing the structure, function and development of neural circuits. It is the first research institute of the Max Planck Society in the United States.

Jennifer Gutierrez | EurekAlert!

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists unlock ability to generate new sensory hair cells
22.02.2017 | Brigham and Women's Hospital

nachricht New insights into the information processing of motor neurons
22.02.2017 | Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Microhotplates for a smart gas sensor

22.02.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Scientists unlock ability to generate new sensory hair cells

22.02.2017 | Life Sciences

Prediction: More gas-giants will be found orbiting Sun-like stars

22.02.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>