Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Microchoreography: Researchers use synthetic molecule to guide cellular “dance”

06.12.2012
Johns Hopkins researchers have used a small synthetic molecule to stimulate cells to move and change shape, bypassing the cells’ usual way of sensing and responding to their environment. The experiment pioneers a new tool for studying cell movement, a phenomenon involved in everything from development to immunity to the spread of cancer.

“We were able to use synthetic molecules small enough to slip inside the cell and activate a chemical reaction controlling cell movement, bypassing most of the steps that usually lead up to this reaction,” says Andre Levchenko, Ph.D., a professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine’s Institute for Cell Engineering, whose lab collaborated with that of Takanari Inoue, also from the school of medicine, on the study.

“As a result, we came up with a new model to describe one of the more fundamental and important cellular processes and a better understanding of cell movements critical for cancer progression and immune response.” A report on the study was published Nov. 26 on the website of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Like bacteria wiggling through a drop of pond water, many types of human cells move too, including fibroblasts, which patrol the skin and make repairs; immune cells, which rush to the site of infections; and nerve cells, which must travel great distances during development, Levchenko says. Similarly, in order to metastasize or spread, a tumor’s cells must break off and migrate to a new part of the body.

Because of its role in cancer and immunity, these cellular dances are a hot area of research at present, Levchenko says. However, it is difficult to study the natural process for stimulating movement, in which signaling proteins bind to receptor molecules on the surface of the cell, setting off a complex chain reaction that ultimately propels the cell in a certain direction. In addition to the problem of complexity of the molecular interaction network, another difficulty is that cells decide which way to move by comparing the signal concentration on one side of the cell to the concentration on the other. “Stimulating a cell differently on one side than on the other side is not a trivial thing to do, because cells are incredibly small — about one-tenth the width of a human hair,” Levchenko explains.

To deal with the first problem, Benjamin Lin, a member of Levchenko’s team who led the study, joined forces with Inoue’s research group to take advantage of a novel method relying on a small molecule able to get between the fat molecules of the cell membrane and into the cell. Once inside, it would bind to two slightly modified proteins in the network that stimulates movement; the new complex of three molecules would in turn trigger the critical protein Rac, which falls somewhere in the middle of the choreographed chain reaction that leads to movement. By analyzing which enzymes in the chain reaction were ultimately activated by the synthetic molecule and which weren’t, the researchers could tell whether they were downstream or upstream of Rac in the chain.

To create a fine enough biochemical gradient of the synthetic molecule to guide a cell in a specific direction, the researchers built a silicone-based chip with tiny liquid-dispensing channels running along the surface. When they loaded the channels with a solution containing the synthetic molecule, and placed human cells on the surface, they could stimulate one side of a cell more than the other, and induce it to move. “Neither synthetic molecules nor microfluidic devices had been used before in this particular way, and the results exceeded all our expectations,” says Levchenko. “The cells responded very dramatically, moving in the direction we specified, and changing their shapes.”

In addition to providing researchers with powerful new tools for studying cell movement, the experiment is a step forward for the budding field of synthetic biology. “If a researcher decides to grow new tissue for transplantation, it could be useful to have a cue that enforces cell migration and assembly,” Levchenko says.

Other authors on the paper are Benjamin Lin, Tasuku Ueno, Ph.D., C. Joanne Wang, Ph.D., Andrew Harwell and Takanari Inoue, Ph.D., of Johns Hopkins; and William R. Holmes, Ph.D., and Leah Edelstein-Keshet, Ph.D., of the University of British Columbia.

This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and by the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of General Medical Sciences and National Cancer Institute (grant numbers GM092930, GM072024, GM084332, and CA15578).

Vanessa McMains | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhmi.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Immune Defense Without Collateral Damage
23.01.2017 | Universität Basel

nachricht The interactome of infected neural cells reveals new therapeutic targets for Zika
23.01.2017 | D'Or Institute for Research and Education

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Quantum optical sensor for the first time tested in space – with a laser system from Berlin

For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.

According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Tracking movement of immune cells identifies key first steps in inflammatory arthritis

23.01.2017 | Health and Medicine

Electrocatalysis can advance green transition

23.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New technology for mass-production of complex molded composite components

23.01.2017 | Process Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>