Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Lab-developed intestinal organoids form mature human tissue in mice

20.10.2014

Study produces unprecedented model to study intestinal diseases

Researchers have successfully transplanted "organoids" of functioning human intestinal tissue grown from pluripotent stem cells in a lab dish into mice – creating an unprecedented model for studying diseases of the intestine.


Michael Helmrath, M.D., M.S., surgical director of the Intestinal Rehabilitation Program at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, talks about researchers successfully growing human intestinal tissue in mice. The study describes an unprecedented model for studying diseases of the intestine. Reporting their results Oct. 19 in Nature Medicine, the scientists said through additional translational research, the findings could eventually lead to bioengineering personalized human intestinal tissue to treat gastrointestinal diseases.

Credit: Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

Reporting their results Oct. 19 online in Nature Medicine, scientists from Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center said that, through additional translational research the findings could eventually lead to bioengineering personalized human intestinal tissue to treat gastrointestinal diseases.

"These studies support the concept that patient-specific cells can be used to grow intestine," said Michael Helmrath, MD, MS, lead investigator and surgical director of the Intestinal Rehabilitation Program at Cincinnati Children's. "This provides a new way to study the many diseases and conditions that can cause intestinal failure, from genetic disorders appearing at birth to conditions that strike later in life, such as cancer and Crohn's disease. These studies also advance the longer-term goal of growing tissues that can replace damaged human intestine."

The scientists used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) – which can become any tissue type in the body – to generate the intestinal organoids. The team converted adult cells drawn from skin and blood samples into "blank" iPSCs, then placed the stem cells into a specific molecular cocktail so they would form intestinal organoids.

The human organoids were then engrafted into the capsule of the kidney of a mouse, providing a necessary blood supply that allowed the organoid cells to grow into fully mature human intestinal tissue. The researchers noted that this step represents a major sign of progress for a line of regenerative medicine that scientists worldwide have been working for several years to develop.

Mice used in the study were genetically engineered so their immune systems would accept the introduction of human tissues. The grafting procedure required delicate surgery at a microscopic level, according to researchers. But once attached to a mouse's kidney, the study found that the cells grow and multiply on their own. Each mouse in the study produced significant amounts of fully functional, fully human intestine.

"The mucosal lining contains all the differentiated cells and continuously renews itself by proliferation of intestinal stem cells. In addition, the mucosa develops both absorptive and digestive ability that was not evident in the culture dish," Helmrath said. "Importantly, the muscle layers of the intestine also develop."

What This Means for Patients

The new findings eventually could be good news for people born with genetic defects affecting their digestive systems or people who have lost intestinal function from cancer, as well as Crohn's disease and other related inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).

One of the advantages of using tissue generated from iPSCs is that the treatment process would involve the patient's own tissue, thus eliminating the risk and expense of life-long medications to prevent transplant rejection.

However, the researchers cautioned that it will take years of further research to translate lab-grown tissue replacement into medical practice. In the meantime, the discovery could have other, more immediate benefits by accelerating drug development and the concept of personalized medicine.

The current process for developing new medications depends on a long and imperfect process of animal testing. Promising compounds from the lab are tested in animals bred to mimic human diseases and conditions. Many compounds that prove effective and safe in mice turn out to be unsuccessful in human clinical trials. Others have mixed results, where some groups of patients clearly benefit from the new drug, but others suffer harmful side effects.

Lab-grown organoids have the potential to replace much of the animal testing stage by allowing early drug research to occur directly upon human tissue. Going straight to human tissue testing could shave years off the drug development process, researchers said.

The current study in Nature represents the latest step in years of stem cell and organoid research at Cincinnati Children's, much of which has been led by James Wells, PhD, and Noah Shroyer, PhD. Wells is a scientist in the divisions of Developmental Biology and Endocrinology at Cincinnati Children's and director of the Pluripotent Stem Cell Center. Shroyer is a scientist in the divisions of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition and Developmental Biology.

Wells and colleagues first reported success at growing intestinal organoids in the lab in December 2010. Since then, the team has reported similar success at growing organoids of stomach tissue.

Also collaborating were researchers at the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, Mich.)

###

Funding support for the study came in part from: the National Institutes of Health (DK092456; U18NS080815; R01DK098350; DK092306; CA142826; R01DK083325; P30 DK078392; UL1RR026314; K01DK091415 P30DK034933; DK094775).

About Cincinnati Children's:

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center ranks third in the nation among all Honor Roll hospitals in U.S. News and World Report's 2014 Best Children's Hospitals. It is also ranked in the top 10 for all 10 pediatric specialties. Cincinnati Children's, a non-profit organization, is one of the top three recipients of pediatric research grants from the National Institutes of Health, and a research and teaching affiliate of the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. The medical center is internationally recognized for improving child health and transforming delivery of care through fully integrated, globally recognized research, education and innovation. Additional information can be found at http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org. Connect on the Cincinnati Children's blog, via Facebook and on Twitter.

Nick Miller | Eurek Alert!

Further reports about: Biology Medicine diseases human tissue intestinal pluripotent stem cells stem cells

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New risk factors for anxiety disorders
24.02.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
24.02.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>