One team found that the technical breakthrough in creating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) from mouse somatic cells (nonsex cells) in vitro had "implications for overcoming immunological rejection."
Whereas a second team using liver cell xenotransplantation - transplanting cells of one species into another (in this case transplanting pig liver cells into mice) - found that transplanted liver cells from widely divergent species can function to correct acute liver failure and prolong survival.
Their studies, published in the current issue of Cell Transplantation (19:6/7), are freely available on-line at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/ct/
Somatic cells differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells
A research team at the Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, working with colleagues at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine found that mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are pluripotent (able to differentiate into many varieties of stem cells) and able to proliferate in vitro without limits and could be cultured to become hepatocyte-like cells.
According to the researchers, a major limitation for cell-based therapies to treat liver diseases is the shortage of cell donors. Rejection is still an issue and chronic immunosuppression is required for allotransplantation (cells from nonidentical donors), making patient-derived cells, especially somatic cells (non-sex cells) attractive for transplantation.
"The ability to make iPS cells from somatic cells has implications for overcoming both immunological rejection and ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells," said corresponding author Dr. Masaya Iwamuro. "Our study will be an important step in generating hepatocytes from human iPS cells as a new source for liver-targeted cell therapies."
The researchers found that the transplanted hepatocyte-like cells they produced from the mouse iPS cells increased the production of albumin and were also able to metabolize ammonia, which are characteristics of functional hepatocytes.
"In the future, studies will generate new therapies that include the transplantation of iPS cell-derived hepatocytes without immunological barrier, in vitro determination of toxicity, and the development of personalized health care by evaluating drugs for efficacy and toxicity on patient-specific hepatocytes," concluded Dr. Iwamuro.Contact: Dr. Masaya Iwamuro, Department of Gastroenterology and hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-Ku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.
"Using xenogenic hepatocytes from animals such as pigs might be advantageous for treating acute liver failure in humans," said Dr. Kobayashi. "Hepatocytes are the main active cells in the liver. However, removal from the liver causes hepatocytes major stress and potential loss of function. We tested a scaffold to improve the success of hepatocyte xenotransplantation."
According to Dr. Kobayashi, many scientists are making efforts to recreate a functional liver "outside its own niche," and their study involved creating a self-assembling peptide nanofiber (SAPNF) scaffold and testing its ability to function in vivo.
"In this xenotransplantation model, we found that the SAPNF has an excellent ability to promote hepatocyte engraftment and maintains tremendous hepatocyte functions capable of rescuing mice from acute liver failure," concluded Dr. Kobayashi, whose team worked with colleagues from the Baylor (Texas) University Institution for Immunology Research.Contact: Dr. Naoya Kobayashi, Department of Surgery Medical Research, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2-5-1 Shikata, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.
The editorial offices for CELL TRANSPLANTATION are at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, College of Medicine, the University of South Florida and the Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Contact, David Eve, PhD. at firstname.lastname@example.org or Camillo Ricordi, MD at email@example.com
David Eve | EurekAlert!
Cryo-electron microscopy achieves unprecedented resolution using new computational methods
24.03.2017 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
How cheetahs stay fit and healthy
24.03.2017 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy