One team found that the technical breakthrough in creating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) from mouse somatic cells (nonsex cells) in vitro had "implications for overcoming immunological rejection."
Whereas a second team using liver cell xenotransplantation - transplanting cells of one species into another (in this case transplanting pig liver cells into mice) - found that transplanted liver cells from widely divergent species can function to correct acute liver failure and prolong survival.
Their studies, published in the current issue of Cell Transplantation (19:6/7), are freely available on-line at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/ct/
Somatic cells differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells
A research team at the Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, working with colleagues at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine found that mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are pluripotent (able to differentiate into many varieties of stem cells) and able to proliferate in vitro without limits and could be cultured to become hepatocyte-like cells.
According to the researchers, a major limitation for cell-based therapies to treat liver diseases is the shortage of cell donors. Rejection is still an issue and chronic immunosuppression is required for allotransplantation (cells from nonidentical donors), making patient-derived cells, especially somatic cells (non-sex cells) attractive for transplantation.
"The ability to make iPS cells from somatic cells has implications for overcoming both immunological rejection and ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells," said corresponding author Dr. Masaya Iwamuro. "Our study will be an important step in generating hepatocytes from human iPS cells as a new source for liver-targeted cell therapies."
The researchers found that the transplanted hepatocyte-like cells they produced from the mouse iPS cells increased the production of albumin and were also able to metabolize ammonia, which are characteristics of functional hepatocytes.
"In the future, studies will generate new therapies that include the transplantation of iPS cell-derived hepatocytes without immunological barrier, in vitro determination of toxicity, and the development of personalized health care by evaluating drugs for efficacy and toxicity on patient-specific hepatocytes," concluded Dr. Iwamuro.Contact: Dr. Masaya Iwamuro, Department of Gastroenterology and hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-Ku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.
"Using xenogenic hepatocytes from animals such as pigs might be advantageous for treating acute liver failure in humans," said Dr. Kobayashi. "Hepatocytes are the main active cells in the liver. However, removal from the liver causes hepatocytes major stress and potential loss of function. We tested a scaffold to improve the success of hepatocyte xenotransplantation."
According to Dr. Kobayashi, many scientists are making efforts to recreate a functional liver "outside its own niche," and their study involved creating a self-assembling peptide nanofiber (SAPNF) scaffold and testing its ability to function in vivo.
"In this xenotransplantation model, we found that the SAPNF has an excellent ability to promote hepatocyte engraftment and maintains tremendous hepatocyte functions capable of rescuing mice from acute liver failure," concluded Dr. Kobayashi, whose team worked with colleagues from the Baylor (Texas) University Institution for Immunology Research.Contact: Dr. Naoya Kobayashi, Department of Surgery Medical Research, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2-5-1 Shikata, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.
The editorial offices for CELL TRANSPLANTATION are at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, College of Medicine, the University of South Florida and the Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Contact, David Eve, PhD. at firstname.lastname@example.org or Camillo Ricordi, MD at email@example.com
David Eve | EurekAlert!
Embryonic development: How do limbs develop from cells?
18.05.2018 | Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Reading histone modifications, an oncoprotein is modified in return
18.05.2018 | American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...
A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.
The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...
Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.
Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...
A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.
Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
18.05.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering
18.05.2018 | Information Technology
18.05.2018 | Information Technology