One team found that the technical breakthrough in creating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) from mouse somatic cells (nonsex cells) in vitro had "implications for overcoming immunological rejection."
Whereas a second team using liver cell xenotransplantation - transplanting cells of one species into another (in this case transplanting pig liver cells into mice) - found that transplanted liver cells from widely divergent species can function to correct acute liver failure and prolong survival.
Their studies, published in the current issue of Cell Transplantation (19:6/7), are freely available on-line at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/ct/
Somatic cells differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells
A research team at the Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, working with colleagues at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine found that mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are pluripotent (able to differentiate into many varieties of stem cells) and able to proliferate in vitro without limits and could be cultured to become hepatocyte-like cells.
According to the researchers, a major limitation for cell-based therapies to treat liver diseases is the shortage of cell donors. Rejection is still an issue and chronic immunosuppression is required for allotransplantation (cells from nonidentical donors), making patient-derived cells, especially somatic cells (non-sex cells) attractive for transplantation.
"The ability to make iPS cells from somatic cells has implications for overcoming both immunological rejection and ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells," said corresponding author Dr. Masaya Iwamuro. "Our study will be an important step in generating hepatocytes from human iPS cells as a new source for liver-targeted cell therapies."
The researchers found that the transplanted hepatocyte-like cells they produced from the mouse iPS cells increased the production of albumin and were also able to metabolize ammonia, which are characteristics of functional hepatocytes.
"In the future, studies will generate new therapies that include the transplantation of iPS cell-derived hepatocytes without immunological barrier, in vitro determination of toxicity, and the development of personalized health care by evaluating drugs for efficacy and toxicity on patient-specific hepatocytes," concluded Dr. Iwamuro.Contact: Dr. Masaya Iwamuro, Department of Gastroenterology and hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-Ku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.
"Using xenogenic hepatocytes from animals such as pigs might be advantageous for treating acute liver failure in humans," said Dr. Kobayashi. "Hepatocytes are the main active cells in the liver. However, removal from the liver causes hepatocytes major stress and potential loss of function. We tested a scaffold to improve the success of hepatocyte xenotransplantation."
According to Dr. Kobayashi, many scientists are making efforts to recreate a functional liver "outside its own niche," and their study involved creating a self-assembling peptide nanofiber (SAPNF) scaffold and testing its ability to function in vivo.
"In this xenotransplantation model, we found that the SAPNF has an excellent ability to promote hepatocyte engraftment and maintains tremendous hepatocyte functions capable of rescuing mice from acute liver failure," concluded Dr. Kobayashi, whose team worked with colleagues from the Baylor (Texas) University Institution for Immunology Research.Contact: Dr. Naoya Kobayashi, Department of Surgery Medical Research, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2-5-1 Shikata, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.
The editorial offices for CELL TRANSPLANTATION are at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, College of Medicine, the University of South Florida and the Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Contact, David Eve, PhD. at email@example.com or Camillo Ricordi, MD at firstname.lastname@example.org
David Eve | EurekAlert!
Scientists spin artificial silk from whey protein
24.01.2017 | Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY
Choreographing the microRNA-target dance
24.01.2017 | UT Southwestern Medical Center
A Swedish-German team of researchers has cleared up a key process for the artificial production of silk. With the help of the intense X-rays from DESY's...
For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.
According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
24.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.01.2017 | Life Sciences
24.01.2017 | Health and Medicine