Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Interferon Needed for Cells to 'Remember’ How to Defeat a Virus

04.12.2008
Scientists at UT Southwestern Medical Center have determined that the immune-system protein interferon plays a key role in “teaching” the immune system how to fight off repeated infections of the same virus.

The findings, available online and in the Dec. 15 issue of the Journal of Immunology, have potential application in the development of more effective vaccines and anti-viral therapies.

Typically, when a person is infected with a virus, the human body immediately generates a massive number of T cells – a type of immune cell – that kill off the infected cells. Once the infection has cleared, most of the T cells also die off, leaving behind a small pool of central memory cells that “remember” how to fight that particular type of virus if the person is infected again.

“In this study, we have uncovered interferon’s role and the key signaling protein, called IL-2, involved in generating memory T cells,” said Dr. David Farrar, assistant professor of immunology at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study. “Knowing how T cells acquire this memory may help us design better strategies and vaccines to fight HIV and other infectious diseases. Further, our discovery was made using primary human CD4+ T cells, which underscores the relevance of our discovery to human immune responses.”

CD4+ T cells coordinate the actions of other cells at the site of infection.

When a virus or bacterium infects a human, the infected cells secrete several molecules, including a cytokine – or signaling protein – called interferon alpha. The action of interferon is what makes an infected person feel run down and tired. Although scientists knew that interferon alpha prevented a virus from multiplying and spreading, they didn’t know what role interferon played in the creation of memory cells.

In the current study, the UT Southwestern researchers show that both interferon alpha and another signaling protein called IL-12 are needed to induce the creation of memory cells. They found that interferon and IL-12 team up to promote the creation of a special set of cells that then secrete another signaling protein called IL-2. These IL-2-secreting cells are the ones that remain in the body and “remember” how to fight off the virus.

“Without the IL-2 signaling protein, you’ll generate a beautiful primary response against a virus, and you’ll eliminate the bug, but your body won’t remember how it defeated the virus,” Dr. Farrar said. “Without these memory cells, your body is defenseless against re-infections.”

Ann Davis, student research assistant in immunology and lead author of the study, said this suggests a new role for interferon: teacher.

“This is really the first demonstration of a role for interferon in teaching a T cell how to respond to viral infections,” she said.

Dr. Farrar added: “Up until now, interferon has always been appreciated for its role in inhibiting virus infections. But no one’s really paid attention to interferon and its role in regulating memory. That’s why we’re so excited about this result.”

The next step, Dr. Farrar said, is to complete the same study in mice. Early results show that mice with T cells that can’t respond to interferon are unable to protect themselves when a virus invades.

“Their immune systems have no idea how to fight the virus,” Dr. Farrar said.
Dr. Farrar said these early findings in mice may pave the way for designing more effective vaccines.

Other UT Southwestern researchers involved in the study were Hilario Ramos, student research assistant in immunology, and Dr. Laurie Davis, associate professor of internal medicine.

The National Institutes of Health supported the research.

Dr. David Farrar -- http://www.utsouthwestern.edu/findfac/professional/0,2356,12163,00.html

Kristen Holland Shear | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.utsouthwestern.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery
20.01.2017 | GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH

nachricht Seeking structure with metagenome sequences
20.01.2017 | DOE/Joint Genome Institute

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>