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Genetic risk for elevated arsenic toxicity discovered

27.02.2012
Study finds variants that influence arsenic metabolism and increase risk for skin lesions

One of the first large-scale genomic studies conducted in a developing country has discovered genetic variants that elevate the risk for skin lesions in people chronically exposed to arsenic. Genetic changes found near the enzyme for metabolizing the chemical into a less toxic form can significantly increase an individual's risk for developing arsenic-related disease.

The discovery could point the way to new screening and intervention options for people who are exposed to groundwater with high levels of arsenic, according to the investigators at the University of Chicago Medicine, Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, and in Bangladesh. The study is published in PLoS Genetics.

The group's genome-wide association study, or GWAS, was conducted in nearly 3,000 individuals exposed to arsenic for decades in Bangladesh. Since the widespread installation of hand-pumped wells to tap groundwater sources in the 1970s, as many as 77 million people – about half the population of Bangladesh – have been accidentally exposed to dangerous levels of arsenic. The World Health Organization calls the exposure "the largest mass poisoning of a population in history."

For more than a decade, the scientists have studied the epidemiology of arsenic-related disease, such as skin lesions, diabetes, and respiratory illnesses, in this population, as well as the effectiveness of interventions to prevent toxicity. In the new study, the researchers sought genetic answers for why some individuals appear to be at higher risk for developing disease after arsenic exposure.

"These results add clarity to the genetic architecture that is playing a role in arsenic toxicity and its underlying biology," said senior author Habibul Ahsan, MD, MMedSc, Louis Block Professor of health studies, medicine and human genetics at the University of Chicago Medicine. "It's a rare type of study for a major problem affecting millions of people around the world, and it opens up opportunities for genetic studies of other major public health problems in developing countries."

The researchers genotyped thousands of arsenic-exposed individuals from the group's main studies for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout the genome, and looked for associations with arsenic metabolite levels and risk of skin lesions.

The genetic findings provide strong evidence that efficient metabolism of arsenic through methylation protects against the toxin. Compounds that boost methylation, such as folic acid, could reduce arsenic toxicity – a strategy currently being tested by co-author Mary Gamble, PhD, associate professor of Environmental Health Sciences at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health.

"If we could somehow find a way to do that in Bangladesh, it would make individuals much better methylators of arsenic, and as this current study shows if you're a better methylator you're at a lower risk for disease," said co-author Joseph Graziano, PhD, professor of Environmental Health Sciences and Director of Superfund Research Program at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University.

Beyond the clinical applications, the current study demonstrates that large-scale genomic studies are possible in a largely rural population of a developing country. The study offers a rare example of a GWAS result with clear, immediate potential for translational impact.

The research was supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the National Cancer Institute.

About Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health

Founded in 1922 as one of the first three public health academies in the nation, Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health pursues an agenda of research, education, and service to address the critical and complex public health issues affecting New Yorkers, the nation and the world. The Mailman School is the third largest recipient of NIH grants among schools of public health. Its over 300 multi-disciplinary faculty members work in more than 100 countries around the world, addressing such issues as preventing infectious and chronic diseases, environmental health, maternal and child health, health policy, climate change & health, and public health preparedness. It is a leader in public health education with over 1,000 graduate students from more than 40 nations pursuing a variety of master's and doctoral degree programs. The Mailman School is also home to numerous world-renowned research centers including the International Center for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs (ICAP), the National Center for Disaster Preparedness, and the Center for Infection and Immunity. For more information, please visit www.mailman.columbia.edu

Stephanie Berger | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.columbia.edu

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