Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Exploring a parasitic tunnel boring machine

16.06.2014

Parasitic worm genome and biology provides a solid basis for the development of new interventions

Researchers have deduced essential biological and genetic information from the genome sequence of the whipworm, an intestinal parasitic worm that infects hundreds of millions of people in developing countries.

This information acts as the foundation for the development of new strategies and treatments against this debilitating parasite.

The whipworm is one of three types of soil-transmitted parasitic worms that collectively infect nearly two billion people. While infections often result in mild disease they may also lead to serious and long-term damage such as malnutrition, stunted growth and impaired learning ability. The full extent of worm-associated morbidity and the effect it has on socio-economic development in endemic countries is unknown.

This unusual parasite bores miniature tunnels through the lining of the large intestine where it may live for years. The study has identified molecules that the parasite uses for tunnelling, how the parasite limits the damage it inflicts, and how the immune system responds to infection.

"Worm infections are an enormous public health problem across the Developing World and with so few effective drugs, the emergence of drug resistance is an ever present risk," says Dr Matthew Berriman, senior author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Our work starts to unravel the whipworm's intimate relationship with humans and paves the way for new approaches to prevent or clear whipworm infections.

"Making these genome sequences freely available will provide an enormous boost to the entire research community that is working on interventions to prevent or treat worm-associated disease."

The team sequenced the genome of both a human- and a mouse-infective form of the whipworm and examined the genes that are most active and may be essential for its survival. Equipped with this information, the team mined for drug targets that could be used against the whipworm and potentially other parasitic worms.

The genome sequence and the range of proteins the whipworm produces provides a biological understanding of the extraordinary niche this worm has evolved to live in. The team found specific digestive enzymes secreted by the whipworm may burrow through the cells in the gut wall. Other enzymes secreted by the parasite seem to contain the 'collateral damage' caused by these digestive enzymes to reduce inflammation and damage to the host's cells.

"In my experience working with children in Ecuador, these parasites, particularly when present in large numbers in an individual, can have profound effects on health," says Professor Philip Cooper, author and clinician from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. "With more than 800 million children worldwide in need of treatment against these particular worms, and because we have only one or two drugs that are safe and effective against these parasites, it is essential that we focus our research on finding new treatments before resistance to the drugs we have has a chance to develop. This study not only opens doors for the development of new drugs but also may allow us to identify already existing drugs used for other diseases that might be effective against this parasite and other types of worms.

"Getting to grips with the genomes and the underlying biology of parasitic worms such as the whipworm is our best option to tackle this growing global problem."

Whipworm eggs are currently being tested in clinical trials as a treatment against various autoimmune diseases, as it is thought that worm infections may reduce the inflammation associated with disorders such as multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. To determine how the immune system responds to infection, mice were exposed to the mouse-specific type of whipworm. The researchers found that infection caused changes to the activity of many mouse genes that have been associated with inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis.

"Although whipworms can be detrimental to human health and economic growth in some regions, they are also important in defining our immune system's 'set point' and ensuring we make the right level of immune response during disease," says Professor Richard Grencis, senior author from The University of Manchester. "The present study shows how both the parasite and the host respond to each other at a level of detail never seen before, that will help us identify how to exploit the ways in which the worm modifies our bodies.

"This finely tuned interaction that has developed over the course of evolution can lead us to design better drug treatments and more effective clinical trials using worms and their products."

###

Notes to Editors

Publication Details Foth BJ, Tsai IJ, Reid AJ, Bancroft AJ, et al (2014). The whipworm genome and dual-species transcriptomics of an intimate host-pathogen interaction. Nature Genetics. DOI: 10.1038/ng.3010

Participating Centres Please see the paper for a full list of participating centres.

Selected Websites

The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) has been engaged in the fight against infectious, debilitating and disabling diseases since 1898 and continues that tradition today with a research portfolio in excess of well over £200 million and a teaching programme attracting students from over 65 countries. http://www.lstmliverpool.ac.uk/

The University of Manchester, a member of the prestigious Russell Group of British universities, is the largest and most popular university in the UK. It has 20 academic schools and hundreds of specialist research groups undertaking pioneering multi-disciplinary teaching and research of worldwide significance. According to the results of the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise, The University of Manchester is one of the country's major research institutions, rated third in the UK in terms of 'research power', and has had no fewer than 25 Nobel laureates either work or study there. The University had an annual income of £807 million in 2011/12. http://www.manchester.ac.uk/

The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute is one of the world's leading genome centres. Through its ability to conduct research at scale, it is able to engage in bold and long-term exploratory projects that are designed to influence and empower medical science globally. Institute research findings, generated through its own research programmes and through its leading role in international consortia, are being used to develop new diagnostics and treatments for human disease. http://www.sanger.ac.uk

The Wellcome Trust is a global charitable foundation dedicated to achieving extraordinary improvements in human and animal health. We support the brightest minds in biomedical research and the medical humanities. Our breadth of support includes public engagement, education and the application of research to improve health. We are independent of both political and commercial interests. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk

Mary Clarke | Eurek Alert!

Further reports about: damage diseases drugs enzymes immune infections parasite parasitic treatments

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht More than just a mechanical barrier – epithelial cells actively combat the flu virus
04.05.2016 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

nachricht Discovery of a fundamental limit to the evolution of the genetic code
03.05.2016 | Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Nuclear Pores Captured on Film

Using an ultra fast-scanning atomic force microscope, a team of researchers from the University of Basel has filmed “living” nuclear pore complexes at work for the first time. Nuclear pores are molecular machines that control the traffic entering or exiting the cell nucleus. In their article published in Nature Nanotechnology, the researchers explain how the passage of unwanted molecules is prevented by rapidly moving molecular “tentacles” inside the pore.

Using high-speed AFM, Roderick Lim, Argovia Professor at the Biozentrum and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute of the University of Basel, has not only directly...

Im Focus: 2+1 is Not Always 3 - In the microworld unity is not always strength

If a person pushes a broken-down car alone, there is a certain effect. If another person helps, the result is the sum of their efforts. If two micro-particles are pushing another microparticle, however, the resulting effect may not necessarily be the sum their efforts. A recent study published in Nature Communications, measured this odd effect that scientists call “many body.”

In the microscopic world, where the modern miniaturized machines at the new frontiers of technology operate, as long as we are in the presence of two...

Im Focus: Tiny microbots that can clean up water

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute Stuttgart have developed self-propelled tiny ‘microbots’ that can remove lead or organic pollution from contaminated water.

Working with colleagues in Barcelona and Singapore, Samuel Sánchez’s group used graphene oxide to make their microscale motors, which are able to adsorb lead...

Im Focus: ORNL researchers discover new state of water molecule

Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states.

In a paper published in Physical Review Letters, researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory describe a new tunneling state of...

Im Focus: Bionic Lightweight Design researchers of the Alfred Wegener Institute at Hannover Messe 2016

Honeycomb structures as the basic building block for industrial applications presented using holo pyramid

Researchers of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) will introduce their latest developments in the field of bionic lightweight design at Hannover Messe from 25...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

The “AC21 International Forum 2016” is About to Begin

27.04.2016 | Event News

Soft switching combines efficiency and improved electro-magnetic compatibility

15.04.2016 | Event News

Grid-Supportive Buildings Give Boost to Renewable Energy Integration

12.04.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

New fabrication and thermo-optical tuning of whispering gallery microlasers

04.05.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Introducing the disposable laser

04.05.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

A new vortex identification method for 3-D complex flow

04.05.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>