Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

DNA with self-interest - Transposable element conquers new strain of fly

12.05.2015

Transposable elements are so-called “jumping genes”. They are capable of “jumping” from one genome position to another. Why transposable elements exist is subject of controversial debate.

Scientists from the Vetmeduni Vienna found that one of the most important transposable elements, the P-element, has only recently invaded the fly Drosophila simulans.


The P-Element is present in D. melanogaster for more than 60 years. It recently also invaded D. simulans.

Photo: Markus Riedl/Vetmeduni Vienna

The P-element has been present in the closely related species Drosophila melanogaster since the 1950s. The latest findings offer a unique opportunity to study the spread of transposable elements. The results were published in the journal PNAS.

Transposable elements are DNA sequences that are capable of changing their genome position by cut and paste or copy and paste through the enzyme transposase. This ability can be harmful for hosts if transposable elements destroy functioning genes, but it can also bring advantages. From an evolutionary point of view, transposable elements diversify the genome and open up chances for adaptation.

DNA that uses its host

Transposable elements are also called selfish DNA parasites because they spread through their hosts, such as humans, animals, plants as well as bacteria and, thus, provide for their own survival.

Robert Kofler from the Institute of Population Genetics at the Vetmeduni Vienna analysed flies from all over the world. He discovered a phenomenon which was thought to be very rare. Kofler found a transposable element in the fly species Drosophila simulans, the so-called P-element. This transposable element has been absent in D. simulans until recent years.

“The P-element has been spreading rapidly in D. simulans within the past five years. It probably invaded the species via horizontal gene transfer. When exactly the transfer happened, is not clear”, says lead author Kofler.

The DNA sequence was not inherited but directly transferred from one organism to another. “This happened to Drosophila melanogaster more than 60 years ago. The P-element was discovered twice in a new species within one hundred years. Therefore we can assume that transposable elements are transferred across the species faster than we thought.”

A transposable element conquers the world

Although scientists found the P-element in D. simulans flies from South Africa as well as from the USA, they assume that there was only one single transfer event. On average, the South African flies had more P-elements in their genome than flies from Florida. “This indicates that the flies from Florida, collected in 2010, were in an early stage after the transfer event. The samples from South Africa are from 2012. The P-element significantly multiplied within these two years”, Kofler concludes.

High-speed evolution in the lab

Head of the institute, Christian Schlötterer, and his team perform high-speed evolution in the lab. They expose fruit flies to extreme conditions such as heat, cold or UV radiation. Before and after the exposure, they sequence the flies’ genomes. The evolve-and-resequence approach makes it possible to identify genes that have been selected through generations. The researchers now want to study the spread of the P-element under such conditions.

“The discovery of the P-element in Drosophila simulans offers the unique possibility to investigate the way transposable elements are regulated and how they survive. We can accelerate evolution in the lab and, thus, answer this and other questions”, Schlötterer explains.

Service:
The article „ The recent invasion of Drosophila simulans by the P-element”, by Robert Kofler, Tom Hill, Viola Nolte, Andrea Betancourt, and Christian Schlötterer was published in the journal PNAS. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/013722

About the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna

The University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria is one of the leading academic and research institutions in the field of Veterinary Sciences in Europe. About 1,300 employees and 2,300 students work on the campus in the north of Vienna which also houses five university clinics and various research sites. Outside of Vienna the university operates Teaching and Research Farms. http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at

Scientific Contact:
Dr. Robert Kofler
Institute of Population Genetics
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-4337
rokofler@gmail.com

Released by:
Susanna Kautschitsch
Science Communication / Public Relations
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-1153
susanna.kautschitsch@vetmeduni.ac.at

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at/en/infoservice/presseinformation/press-releases-2015/...

Dr. Susanna Kautschitsch | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht In living color: Brightly-colored bacteria could be used to 'grow' paints and coatings
20.02.2018 | University of Cambridge

nachricht Computers aid discovery of new, inexpensive material to make LEDs with high color quality
20.02.2018 | University of California - San Diego

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rare find from the deep sea

20.02.2018 | Life Sciences

In living color: Brightly-colored bacteria could be used to 'grow' paints and coatings

20.02.2018 | Life Sciences

Observing and controlling ultrafast processes with attosecond resolution

20.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>