The study represents a major contribution to the new field of connectomics – the effort to map the myriad neural connections in a brain, brain region or nervous system to find the specific nerve connections responsible for particular behaviors. A long-term goal of connectomics is to map the human “connectome” – all the nerve connections within the human brain.
Because C. elegans is such a tiny animal– adults are one millimeter long and consist of just 959 cells – its simple nervous system totaling 302 neurons make it one of the best animal models for understanding the millions-of-times-more-complex human brain.
The Einstein scientists solved the structure of the male worm’s neural mating circuits by developing software that they used to analyze serial electron micrographs that other scientists had taken of the region. They found that male mating requires 144 neurons – nearly half the worm’s total number – and their paper describes the connections between those 144 neurons and 64 muscles involving some 8,000 synapses. A synapse is the junction at which one neuron (nerve cell) passes an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron.
“Establishing the complete structure of the synaptic network governing mating behavior in the male roundworm has been highly revealing,” said Scott Emmons, Ph.D., senior author of the paper and professor in the department of genetics and in the Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience and the Siegfried Ullmann Chair in Molecular Genetics at Einstein. “We can see that the structure of this network has spatial characteristics that help explain how it exerts neural control over the multi-step decision-making process involved in mating.”
In addition to determining how the neurons and muscles are connected, Dr. Emmons and his colleagues for the first time accurately measured the weights of those connections, i.e., an estimate of the strength with which one neuron or muscle communicates with another.
The Science paper is titled “The connectome of a decision-making neural network.” Other authors were: lead authors Travis Jarrell and Yi Wang, Ph.D., Adam E. Bloniarz, Christopher Brittin, Meng Xu, and David Hall, Ph.D., all at Einstein, and J. Nichol Thomson and Donna Albertson, Ph.D., formerly at MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England.
The research was supported by the Medical Research Council (U.K.); the National Institute of Mental Health (R21MH63223) and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OD010943), both of the National Institutes of Health; and the G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation.About Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
Other areas where the College of Medicine is concentrating its efforts include developmental brain research, neuroscience, cardiac disease, and initiatives to reduce and eliminate ethnic and racial health disparities. Its partnership with Montefiore Medical Center, the University Hospital and academic medical center for Einstein, advances clinical and translational research to accelerate the pace at which new discoveries become the treatments and therapies that benefit patients. Through its extensive affiliation network involving Montefiore, Jacobi Medical Center – Einstein’s founding hospital, and five other hospital systems in the Bronx, Manhattan, Long Island and Brooklyn, Einstein runs one of the largest post-graduate medical training programs in the United States, offering approximately 155 residency programs to more than 2,200 physicians in training. For more information, please visit www.einstein.yu.edu and follow us on Twitter @EinsteinMed.
Scott Emmons | Newswise Science News
Flavins keep a handy helper in their pocket
25.04.2018 | University of Freiburg
Complete skin regeneration system of fish unraveled
24.04.2018 | Tokyo Institute of Technology
At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.
Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...
Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.
Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...
University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.
Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.
Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...
Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.
The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...
13.04.2018 | Event News
12.04.2018 | Event News
09.04.2018 | Event News
25.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
25.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
25.04.2018 | Information Technology