The study represents a major contribution to the new field of connectomics – the effort to map the myriad neural connections in a brain, brain region or nervous system to find the specific nerve connections responsible for particular behaviors. A long-term goal of connectomics is to map the human “connectome” – all the nerve connections within the human brain.
Because C. elegans is such a tiny animal– adults are one millimeter long and consist of just 959 cells – its simple nervous system totaling 302 neurons make it one of the best animal models for understanding the millions-of-times-more-complex human brain.
The Einstein scientists solved the structure of the male worm’s neural mating circuits by developing software that they used to analyze serial electron micrographs that other scientists had taken of the region. They found that male mating requires 144 neurons – nearly half the worm’s total number – and their paper describes the connections between those 144 neurons and 64 muscles involving some 8,000 synapses. A synapse is the junction at which one neuron (nerve cell) passes an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron.
“Establishing the complete structure of the synaptic network governing mating behavior in the male roundworm has been highly revealing,” said Scott Emmons, Ph.D., senior author of the paper and professor in the department of genetics and in the Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience and the Siegfried Ullmann Chair in Molecular Genetics at Einstein. “We can see that the structure of this network has spatial characteristics that help explain how it exerts neural control over the multi-step decision-making process involved in mating.”
In addition to determining how the neurons and muscles are connected, Dr. Emmons and his colleagues for the first time accurately measured the weights of those connections, i.e., an estimate of the strength with which one neuron or muscle communicates with another.
The Science paper is titled “The connectome of a decision-making neural network.” Other authors were: lead authors Travis Jarrell and Yi Wang, Ph.D., Adam E. Bloniarz, Christopher Brittin, Meng Xu, and David Hall, Ph.D., all at Einstein, and J. Nichol Thomson and Donna Albertson, Ph.D., formerly at MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England.
The research was supported by the Medical Research Council (U.K.); the National Institute of Mental Health (R21MH63223) and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OD010943), both of the National Institutes of Health; and the G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation.About Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
Other areas where the College of Medicine is concentrating its efforts include developmental brain research, neuroscience, cardiac disease, and initiatives to reduce and eliminate ethnic and racial health disparities. Its partnership with Montefiore Medical Center, the University Hospital and academic medical center for Einstein, advances clinical and translational research to accelerate the pace at which new discoveries become the treatments and therapies that benefit patients. Through its extensive affiliation network involving Montefiore, Jacobi Medical Center – Einstein’s founding hospital, and five other hospital systems in the Bronx, Manhattan, Long Island and Brooklyn, Einstein runs one of the largest post-graduate medical training programs in the United States, offering approximately 155 residency programs to more than 2,200 physicians in training. For more information, please visit www.einstein.yu.edu and follow us on Twitter @EinsteinMed.
Scott Emmons | Newswise Science News
Multi-institutional collaboration uncovers how molecular machines assemble
02.12.2016 | Salk Institute
Fertilized egg cells trigger and monitor loss of sperm’s epigenetic memory
02.12.2016 | IMBA - Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften GmbH
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy