Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Cellular Gates for Sodium and Calcium Controlled by Common Element of Ancient Origins

02.07.2014

Find likely to aid drug development

  • Sodium channels and calcium channels are molecular portals that allow controlled passage of ions across a cell’s membrane; they are required for healthy brain, heart and muscle function.
  • While these two types of portals are distinct molecular beasts, Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered a long-unrecognized control feature common to both, a finding that promises new and unified approaches to related disease therapies.

All in the family: Sodium channels and calcium channels share common roots.

Manu Ben-Johny/Johns Hopkins Medicine

Researchers at Johns Hopkins have spotted a strong family trait in two distant relatives: The channels that permit entry of sodium and calcium ions into cells turn out to share similar means for regulating ion intake, they say. Both types of channels are critical to life. Having the right concentrations of sodium and calcium ions in cells enables healthy brain communication, heart contraction and many other processes. The new evidence is likely to aid development of drugs for channel-linked diseases ranging from epilepsy to heart ailments to muscle weakness.

“This discovery was long in coming,” says David Yue, M.D., Ph.D., a professor in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine’s Department of Biomedical Engineering. His team’s report, which appears in the June 19 issue of the journal Cell, had its genesis in the 1990s with another group’s observation that sodium and calcium channels bear a striking resemblance in a small portion of an otherwise very different structure. “It looked like this ‘resemblance element’ might be a molecular time capsule derived from a primeval ion channel thought to have birthed distinct sodium and calcium channels a billion years ago,” Yue says.

... more about:
»Cellular »calmodulin »concentrations »drugs »ions »sodium

For calcium channels, Yue’s and other research groups found that the resemblance element supports an important function, preventing the channel from opening when the cellular calcium level gets high. This prevents too much calcium from building up within cells, much like a thermostat controls household temperatures. This calcium control requires a calcium-sensing molecule called calmodulin, which binds to channels within the resemblance element.

The picture for sodium channels, however, was muddier, with different researchers reporting conflicting findings about whether calmodulin and the resemblance element prevent the opening of sodium channels; perhaps the time capsule was damaged over the millenia or was never there.

Manu Ben-Johny, a graduate student in Yue’s laboratory, took up the question. “We thought that the conflicting results for sodium channels might be related to difficulties in existing methods to control the calcium concentrations that might affect these channels,” Ben-Johny says.

Looking for a new way to approach the problem, Yue’s team bound calcium ions in molecular “cages” that could be opened with a flash of light. This enabled them to “smuggle” calcium ions into cells and see what happened to sodium channels when the calcium concentration changed abruptly. They found that, as with calcium channels, increasing calcium concentrations caused calmodulin to bind within the resemblance element of sodium channels and prevent their opening, just as in calcium channels.

The implications of a common control element in sodium and calcium channels are vast, Yue says, including unified understanding of conditions that spring from defects in the calcium control of these channels. In addition, he says, “Researchers have long sought drugs that modulate sodium and calcium channels in new ways. Targeting the common control element offers a new frontier for developing next-generation pharmaceuticals.”

Other authors on the paper are Philemon S. Yang, Jacqueline Niu, Wanjun Yang and Rosy Joshi-Mukherjee, all of The Johns Hopkins University.

This study was funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (grant number R01 NS073874) and the National Institute of Mental Health (grant number F31MH088109).

Shawna Williams | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/cellular_gates_for_sodium_and_calcium_controlled_by_common_element_of_ancient_origins

Further reports about: Cellular calmodulin concentrations drugs ions sodium

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Building a better battery
29.06.2016 | Texas A&M University

nachricht New way out: Researchers show how stem cells exit bloodstream
29.06.2016 | North Carolina State University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Optical lenses, hardly larger than a human hair

3D printing enables the smalles complex micro-objectives

3D printing revolutionized the manufacturing of complex shapes in the last few years. Using additive depositing of materials, where individual dots or lines...

Im Focus: Flexible OLED applications arrive

R2D2, a joint project to analyze and development high-TRL processes and technologies for manufacture of flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) has been successfully completed.

In contrast to point light sources like LEDs made of inorganic semiconductor crystals, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are light-emitting surfaces. Their...

Im Focus: Unexpected flexibility found in odorant molecules

High resolution rotational spectroscopy reveals an unprecedented number of conformations of an odorant molecule – a new world record!

In a recent publication in the journal Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter...

Im Focus: 3-D printing produces cartilage from strands of bioink

Strands of cow cartilage substitute for ink in a 3D bioprinting process that may one day create cartilage patches for worn out joints, according to a team of engineers. "Our goal is to create tissue that can be used to replace large amounts of worn out tissue or design patches," said Ibrahim T. Ozbolat, associate professor of engineering science and mechanics. "Those who have osteoarthritis in their joints suffer a lot. We need a new alternative treatment for this."

Cartilage is a good tissue to target for scale-up bioprinting because it is made up of only one cell type and has no blood vessels within the tissue. It is...

Im Focus: First experimental quantum simulation of particle physics phenomena

Physicists in Innsbruck have realized the first quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories, building a bridge between high-energy theory and atomic physics. In the journal Nature, Rainer Blatt‘s and Peter Zoller’s research teams describe how they simulated the creation of elementary particle pairs out of the vacuum by using a quantum computer.

Elementary particles are the fundamental buildings blocks of matter, and their properties are described by the Standard Model of particle physics. The...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Conference ‘GEO BON’ Wants to Close Knowledge Gaps in Global Biodiversity

28.06.2016 | Event News

ERES 2016: The largest conference in the European real estate industry

09.06.2016 | Event News

Networking 4.0: International Laser Technology Congress AKL’16 Shows New Ways of Cooperations

24.05.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Building a better battery

29.06.2016 | Life Sciences

New way out: Researchers show how stem cells exit bloodstream

29.06.2016 | Life Sciences

Crucial peatlands carbon-sink vulnerable to rising sea levels

29.06.2016 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>