The feedback loop of transcriptional factor with 24 h period in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) was proposed to work as a circadian central oscillator, as well as in peripheral tissues including cartilage and bone.
On the other hand, the fundamental architecture of skeletal patterning is regulated by ultradian clocks that undergo cycles more than once every 24 hours in embryonic development. In 1997, the oscillatory expression of c-hairy1—a Notch effecter gene—was identified in chick embryos and matched the period of somite formation (every 90 minutes in chicks), called the segmentation clock.
Somitogenesis is one of the most evident events in an ultradian manner, which endows basic repetitive patterns of axial skeleton and its associated tissues during embryonic development. Long bone growth and bone metabolism also exhibit periodic activities in a circadian fashion. Core loops of circadian clock genes are also at work in bone and cartilage.
Here, collaborators at Toyohashi University of Technology and Tokyo Medical and Dental University propose bio-imaging methodology to observe both clocks. Bio-imaging detecting of luminescent and fluorescent signals enables observation of more comprehensive sets of genes and spatio-temporal regulation of these clockwork machineries during development.
In this review paper, the authors also describe the potential of three dimensional imaging for bone research. Topics covered include molecular clocks in skeletal biology and medicine, and how fluorescence imaging would contribute to widening our knowledge of biomedical science.
Tadahiro Iimura*1, Ayako Nakane1, Mayu Sugiyama1, Hiroki Sato1, Yuji Makino, Takashi Watanabe1 , Yuzo Takagi1, Rika Numano*2 , Akira Yamaguchi*1*to whom correspondence should be addressedA fluorescence spotlight on the clockwork development and metabolism of boneJournal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism On line July 2011DOI: 10.1007/s00774-011-0295-31International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental
University, Sections of Oral PathologyWebsite: http://www.tmd.ac.jp/dent/opat/opat-J.htm2The Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology Website: http://www.eiiris.tut.ac.jp/
Rika Numano | Toyohashi University
Closing the carbon loop
08.12.2016 | University of Pittsburgh
Newly discovered bacteria-binding protein in the intestine
08.12.2016 | University of Gothenburg
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
08.12.2016 | Life Sciences
08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy
08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences