Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

'Despair' Gene May Link to Mood Disorders

16.11.2009
A gene in the brain that was not previously linked to mood disorders could have a role in biopolar, depression, and schizophrenic conditions.

Pharmacy scientists at the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) have identified antidepressant and anti-anxiety behaviors in tests of mice lacking the gene.

Writing in the journal BMC Neuroscience, Elisabeth Barbier, PhD, postdoctoral fellow at the School of Pharmacy, and Jia Bei Wang, PhD, professor at the School, concluded after running a battery of standard behavioral tests on the mice without the PKCI/HINT1 gene that it may have an important role in mood regulation.

Mice in the study that had what is being called the “despair” gene eventually gave up trying to avoid apparent danger in tests involving swimming or exposure to light—conditions disliked by mice. Mice without the gene kept trying to escape from danger, perhaps abnormally.

“The knockout mice [without the gene] displayed behaviors indicative of changes in mood function, such as increased perseverance and reduced anxiety in open spaces,“ Wang said.

The causes of mood dysfunction, as seen in depressive and bipolar disorders, are still not fully understood. They are believed to be multifactorial and involve heredity, changes in neurotransmitter levels, altered neuroendocrine function, and psychosocial factors.

“We don’t yet know why the deletion of the gene altered the mood status of the mice,” says Wang, a neuroscientist. She says the protein encoded by the gene could be a potential target for development of diagnostic or therapeutic agents that one day might be used for depression, bipolar disorders or schizophrenia. In addition, the knockout mice might be useful as models to study mania. Currently no mania animal model is available.

The researchers discovered the gene while studying the biological receptors in brain cells that respond to opioid drugs. “I thought [such a] receptor can’t be making the entire change in the body. There must be other proteins,” Wang says. The scientists learned that the gene had already been cloned at Columbia University in the City of New York, where medical researchers were studying its possible role in cancer.

Five years ago, Wang searched scientific literature and found no psychological function for the gene, although it is concentrated in the brain. But she was convinced of its importance because the protein for the gene appears in the genome of living things all along the evolutionary spectrum—from bacteria and fungi to worms to humans. “It must be important. It must be essential otherwise why would all these creatures have it?” Wang says.

Also significant, she says, is that other studies have shown that cadavers of people with biopolar and schizophrenia disorders had less protein encoded by the gene in their brains.

By screening large libraries of chemicals, Wang will next search for compounds that may induce changes in the protein of the gene.

Meanwhile, she says, “We are showing the scientific community that this is an important protein that may have something to do with schizophrenia, bipolar [disorders], and depression. But we don’t know how it works. Certainly this opens the door for work on discovering the mechanism, how it changes behavior. This is the first paper to show that this protein is important to these conditions.”

Wang adds that the work may also provide some clue about the pathological basis of schizophrenia and bipolar conditions—or, as she says, “just what happens to those patients.”

According to the February 2008 issue of the journal PLoS Medicine, more prescriptions in 2007 were dispensed for antidepressants—232.7 million nationwide—than for drugs of any other type. U.S. sales of antidepressants totaled $11.9 billion, according to data from IMS Health, Inc.

Steve Berberich | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.umaryland.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Single-stranded DNA and RNA origami go live
15.12.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard

nachricht New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists
15.12.2017 | Louisiana State University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control

DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.

Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Engineers program tiny robots to move, think like insects

15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

One in 5 materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests

15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences

New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists

15.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>