Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

System improves automated monitoring of security cameras

05.06.2012
New approach uses mathematics to reach a compromise between accuracy and speed

Police and security teams guarding airports, docks and border crossings from terrorist attack or illegal entry need to know immediately when someone enters a prohibited area, and who they are. A network of surveillance cameras is typically used to monitor these at-risk locations 24 hours a day, but these can generate too many images for human eyes to analyze.

Now, a system being developed by Christopher Amato, a postdoc at MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL), can perform this analysis more accurately and in a fraction of the time it would take a human camera operator. "You can't have a person staring at every single screen, and even if you did the person might not know exactly what to look for," Amato says. "For example, a person is not going to be very good at searching through pages and pages of faces to try to match [an intruder] with a known criminal or terrorist."

Existing computer-vision systems designed to carry out this task automatically tend to be fairly slow, Amato says. "Sometimes it's important to come up with an alarm immediately, even if you are not yet positive exactly what it is happening," he says. "If something bad is going on, you want to know about it as soon as possible."

So Amato and his University of Minnesota colleagues Komal Kapoor, Nisheeth Srivastava and Paul Schrater are developing a system that uses mathematics to reach a compromise between accuracy — so the system does not trigger an alarm every time a cat walks in front of the camera, for example — with the speed needed to allow security staff to act on an intrusion as quickly as possible.

For camera-based surveillance systems, operators typically have a range of computer-vision algorithms they could use to analyze the video feed. These include skin detection algorithms that can identify a person in an image, or background detection systems that detect unusual objects, or when something is moving through the scene.

To decide which of these algorithms to use in a given situation, Amato's system first carries out a learning phase, in which it assesses how each piece of software works in the type of setting in which it is being applied, such as an airport. To do this, it runs each of the algorithms on the scene, to determine how long it takes to perform an analysis, and how certain it is of the answer it comes up with. It then adds this information to its mathematical framework, known as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP).

Then, for any given situation — if it wants to know if an intruder has entered the scene, for example — the system can decide which of the available algorithms to run on the image, and in which sequence, to give it the most information in the least amount of time. "We plug all of the things we have learned into the POMDP framework, and it comes up with a policy that might tell you to start out with a skin analysis, for example, and then depending what you find out you might run an analysis to try to figure out who the person is, or use a tracking system to figure out where they are [in each frame]," Amato says. "And you continue doing this until the framework tells you to stop, essentially, when it is confident enough in its analysis to say there is a known terrorist here, for example, or that nothing is going on at all."

Like a human detective, the system can also take context into account when analyzing a set of images, Amato says. So for instance, if the system is being used at an airport, it could be programmed to identify and track particular people of interest, and to recognize objects that are strange or in unusual locations, he says. It could also be programmed to sound an alarm whenever there are any objects or people in the scene, when there are too many objects, or if the objects are moving in ways that give cause for concern.

In addition to port and airport security, the system could monitor video information obtained by a fleet of unmanned aircraft, Amato says. It could also be used to analyze data from weather-monitoring sensors to determine where tornados are likely to appear, or information from water samples taken by autonomous underwater vehicles, he says. The system would determine how to obtain the information it needs in the least amount of time and with the fewest possible sensors.

Amato and his colleagues will present their system in a paper at the 24th IAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Toronto in July.

Written by Helen Knight, MIT News Office

Caroline McCall | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.mit.edu

More articles from Information Technology:

nachricht Information integration and artificial intelligence for better diagnosis and therapy decisions
24.05.2017 | Fraunhofer MEVIS - Institut für Bildgestützte Medizin

nachricht World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world
18.05.2017 | RMIT University

All articles from Information Technology >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Physicists discover mechanism behind granular capillary effect

24.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Measured for the first time: Direction of light waves changed by quantum effect

24.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>