Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Climatic change and environmental functions of forests

03.05.2006


The situation in Navarre with regard to climate change is one of concern given that gas emissions from the greenhouse effect are even greater than the average in Spain (45%). This is the conclusion of Miren Sarasíbar Iriarte on defending her PhD Law thesis at the Public University of Navarre recently. She analysed sources involving legal norms regulating the environmental functions of forests with reference to international, European Community and Spanish legislation.



Doctor Sarasibar argues that climate change is the most serious problem of all time and that one of the best measures to put a halt to it, using legislation on forestry, is for public administration to encourage the environmental function of drainage by forests. Moreover, forestry protection and conservation are amongst the challenges for rural development policy.

Atmospheric climate and weather as legal entities


Climate change is a serious problem and of a global nature, both in its causes and its effects and, thereby, cries out for the attention from all aspects of public administration. In this regard, the Intergovernnmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC), the ruling scientific body in this field, has stated quite clearly the undoubted existence of climate change. Given this, and using current legislation as a basis, legal solutions to the problem have been sought.

The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first climate change is approached as a judicial study where conceptual questions, the norms concerning global warming and other questions of interest thereof are analysed. It is established that both the atmospheric climate and weather are legal entities in so far as legislation confers legal status and consequences on them.

When climate change was first recognised in legal terms was at the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Subsequently, the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 developed the contents of the Convention. The aim of both was to reduce the anthropogenic emissions of the atmosphere. This very objective has been incorporated into the international, European Community and Spanish legislation that regulate measures for fighting against climate change.

Something more than its contents arise from the Kyoto Protocol: primarily, commitments by Participating States are established for the reduction of emissions. Nevertheless, given the difficulties in complying with such commitments, mechanisms for flexibility have been foreseen: countries can work jointly to reach the fixed percentages. This is the joint application mechanism or joint action, the mechanism for a clean development and trade in rights of emission.

The last of these is the one which has had the most legislation to date and, in the other two mechanisms, projects for afforestation and reafforestation in a different State are involved, directed at ameliorating the effects of climate change due to CO2 emission by means of the drainage function of forests.

This drainage function means taking advantage of and obtaining performance from a natural resource – the forests – as an efficient means of reducing atmospheric contamination and, in consequence, limiting the global warming of the planet. In this regard, forests have to be considered three-dimensionally -economically, socially and environmentally. This multifunctionality needs a suitable forestry policy in order that all these uses and functions can co-exist with an appropriate analysis of all forestry resources.

Spanish forestry policy

In the second part of her thesis, Miren Sarasíbar analyses Spanish forestry policy throughout its history and whereby the predominance of the economic and productive nature of forests can be traced as far back as to the 1957 Law on Mountains. This tendency changed with Legislation on Mountains 43/2003, giving more importance to environmental aspects.

Legislation provides three forms of subsidies: loans, allowances and economic incentives. These measures, according to the researcher, are the best way to incorporate a real environmentalist philosophy, given that the granting of subsidies by the Authorities provides the individual with more motivation for carrying out sustainable forest management.

Also, as a way of encouraging specific initiatives, there are the subsidies for afforestation and reafforestation in order to trigger the drainage function in rural development policy. Moreover, it is worth pointing out the relevance of the biomass and forestry residues in the fight against climate change. In this regard, the Law on Mountains confirms the environmental benefits of both.

On the other hand, the researcher is more critical with the little interest shown by local authorities in this Law, when it is legislation that directly affects them legally, given that they are the ones responsible for management and care of the forests.

Irati Kortabitarte | alfa
Further information:
http://www.basqueresearch.com/berria_irakurri.asp?Gelaxka=1_1&hizk=I&Berri_Kod=958
http://www.elhuyar.com

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Upcycling 'fast fashion' to reduce waste and pollution
03.04.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht Litter is present throughout the world’s oceans: 1,220 species affected
27.03.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>