Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Old-growth Tree Stumps Tell the Story of Fire in Upper Midwest

15.03.2011
Researchers have constructed a 226-year history of fire in southern Illinois by looking at the fire scars in tree stumps.

Their study, the most in-depth fire history reported for the upper Midwest, reveals that changes in the frequency of fires dating back to the time of early European settlement permanently altered the ecology of the region.

The researchers took advantage of a 1996 timber harvest of old growth post oak trees in Hamilton County.

“I was just amazed at the fire scars in these trees,” said William McClain, a botanist with the Illinois State Museum who led the study with researchers John Ebinger and Greg Spyreas, of the Illinois Natural History Survey at the University of Illinois. “I knew that the information that was in these tree trunks was really, really valuable.”

McClain counted growth rings, fire scars and other distinguishing features of 36 of the old-growth post oak trees that had been cut. Luckily for the researchers, the fire-damaged trees had repeatedly healed, retaining their heartwood despite having been badly injured by numerous intense fires.

McClain is an expert in the fire history of Illinois and surrounding states, having collected and published accounts of fires from numerous historical records.

“These are written accounts of observed fires that record the date and location of each fire,” he said. “And there are a significant number of Indian-started fires.”

The new study, in the journal Castanea, confirms that the people who lived in Illinois before European settlers arrived were in the habit of setting fires in the region nearly every year, with fires in the Hamilton County woodland occurring at least every two or three years, McClain said. This repeated burning actually stabilized the prairies and open woodlands that dominated the region until the late 19th century, when the fire-suppression efforts of the new settlers allowed different plant species to take over, the researchers said.

The researchers found evidence of more than 100 fires in Hamilton County between the 1770s and 1996, when the trees were cut down. Prior to 1850, the woodlands burned roughly every two years. A “fire-free” interval followed between 1850 and 1885, as settlers rapidly colonized the area and suppressed fires.

Then in 1885, the fire scars appear again, probably as a result of the localized burning of woodlots, which was a tradition in the region in the late 1800s and early 1900s, the researchers said.

“These smaller, less intense fires were probably started to enhance forage quality for livestock, improve visibility for hunting and to reduce the amount of flammable material in the underbrush,” Spyreas said.

But by that time the previously “open woodlands,” with limited shade and even a few prairie plants growing in the understory had become a dense forest with lots of shade. The shade-intolerant post oaks could not compete with fast-growing, shade-loving species, which until 1850 had been kept in check by the frequent fires.

After the brief period of fire suppression, only established post oaks could survive as other tree species closed in around them; the shade was already too dense for post oak seedlings to survive.

“We used to call these open woodlands ‘barrens,’ ” Ebinger said. “And they were maintained by fires coming through, maybe not every year but at least every third year. Then, 30 years after the fires stopped, the barrens didn’t exist anymore.”

“For hundreds, maybe thousands of years, this was a stable post oak woodland,” Spyreas said. “And then you have a gap of a couple of decades where there were no fires and suddenly the whole system is completely different. It’s amazing how, from Kansas to Ohio, these ecosystems completely depend on fire to be stable.”

The paper, “Fire History of a Post Oak (Quercus stellata Wang.) Woodland
in Hamilton County, Illinois,” is available online or from the U. of I. News
Bureau.

Diana Yates | University of Illinois
Further information:
http://www.illinois.edu

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon
09.12.2016 | Wildlife Conservation Society

nachricht Successful calculation of human and natural influence on cloud formation
04.11.2016 | Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Electron highway inside crystal

Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.

Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth

09.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon

09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution

09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>