In the EU-funded PhosFarm project, research and SME partners aim to make organic phosphorus from agricultural residues accessible as a resource for phosphate fertiliser salts. Using immobilised enzymes, organic phosphorus compounds are released from the organic matter and recovered as phosphate.
In the PhosFarm project valuable soil improver and mineral fertiliser salt products are recovered from agricultural residues.
© Fraunhofer IGB
Phosphorus is an elemental nutrient in agriculture. In response to the increasing demand for phosphorus in the food, biofuels and biobased materials industries, global consumption of phosphate has risen significantly and will continue to increase.
In 2008, approximately 1.4 million tonnes of phosphorus were consumed for the production of synthetic phosphate fertilizer. Moreover, phosphate rock reserves are non-renewable and controlled by only a few countries such as China, Morocco, Tunisia and the U.S.A. As a result, Europe is completely dependent on imports from these countries to cover phosphorus demand.
Besides non-renewable reserves, alternative phosphate resources include municipal wastewater and agricultural organic residues such as livestock manure or digestate from biogas plants. Although new technologies have already been developed for the recovery of dissolved inorganic phosphates in the liquid fractions of municipal and agricultural wastes, solid residues remain a largely untapped source for phosphorus in its organic form. In solid fractions, organic phosphorus bound in biochemical molecules such as phospholipids, nucleotides and nucleic acids offer a bountiful source of phosphorus.
These agricultural residues represent a huge additional reservoir for phosphate recovery: Annually, more than 1,800 million tonnes of manure are generated in the EU and the amount of digestion residues is still increasing. Especially in swine and poultry manure, up to 50 per cent of the overall phosphorus is present in the organic form. In the PhosFarm project, this organic residual matter is to be made accessible as a valuable phosphate resource. The project consortium coordinated by the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB wants to develop a process and realise a pilot plant that features a controlled enzymatic release of organically bound phosphate, enabling up to 90 per cent recovery of total phosphorus.
This novel strategy is to be carried out using phosphate hydrolysing enzymes immobilised onto suited carriers. “In preliminary experiments, we could show that these enzymes can release inorganic phosphate from model compounds,” explains Jennifer Bilbao, who manages the project at the Fraunhofer IGB. After separation of the solid fraction, the released phosphate dissolved in the liquid fraction can be precipitated as magnesium ammonium phosphate and calcium phosphate, which in turn are directly usable as high value fertilising salts.
The remaining dewatered solid phase is dried with an energy efficient drying process operating with superheated steam instead of hot air. The generated organic soil amendment substrate helps to improve soil fertility. Moreover, according to the requirements of crop species and depending on the soil conditions, the organic soil improvers can be mixed with the recovered mineral fertiliser salts to a suited nutrient composition with a defined N/P ratio.
Bilbao describes the advantages of the envisioned concept: “With our mineral fertiliser salt and organic soil improver products, synthetic phosphate fertilisers are saved and overfertilisation from the application of livestock manure on the agricultural fields is prevented. This realisation of efficient phosphorus recovery not only generates valuable products from an otherwise wasted residue, but at the same time achieves environmentally friendly closed loop recycling.
Since September 2013, “PhosFarm – Process for sustainable phosphorus recovery from agricultural residues by enzymatic process to enable a service business for the benefit of European farm community” – has been funded within the scope of the 7th Framework Research Programme of the EU (Grant Agreement No. 605771). The project partners, besides the Fraunhofer IGB, are research partners VITO (Belgium) and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU, Sweden), as well as the SMEs Chiral Vision (Netherlands), Geltz Umwelttechnologie GmbH (Germany), Heckmann Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik GmbH (Germany), Purines Almazan, S.L. (Spain), Agroenergie Hohenlohe GmbH (Germany), ASB Grünland Helmut Aurenz GmbH (Germany) and Servimed Almazan, S.L. (Spain).
Dr. Claudia Vorbeck | Fraunhofer-Institut
Safeguarding sustainability through forest certification mapping
27.06.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Dune ecosystem modelling
26.06.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
Computer scientists use wave packet theory to develop realistic, detailed water wave simulations in real time. Their results will be presented at this year’s SIGGRAPH conference.
Think about the last time you were at a lake, river, or the ocean. Remember the ripples of the water, the waves crashing against the rocks, the wake following...
An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.
Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...
Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...
Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...
19.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
13.06.2017 | Event News
29.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
29.06.2017 | Life Sciences
29.06.2017 | Health and Medicine