Now for something different. In the past year, an unusually innovative DOE program called Solar America Cities has focused on reaching out to formerly ignored, sometimes low-profile city decision makers who administer large chunks of urban real estate. It’s called “technology pull.”
The insight at DOE management was that these key folk could purchase enough solar to make its installation as common and ordinary as curbside recycling.
DOE encouragement would include matching funds, technical support, free policy analyses, and public relations suggestions to help educate relevant political participants as well as the public.
“Tiger Teams” play a large role in underpinning the program. Personnel from Sandia National Laboratories, the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), the Florida Solar Energy Center, New Mexico State University, and private sector partner CH2M Hill, aid city managers and staff with practical savvy as DOE personnel push the higher vision of “making solar mainstream.”
Tiger Teams are assemblages of experts put together for a particular purpose, says Sandia Tiger Team group leader Vipin Gupta. They disband once the mission is completed, only to reassemble elsewhere.
“Tigers are an appropriate metaphor,” Gupta says. “Our people are independent-minded and driven. You can’t just issue an order to them. They’re decentralized, creative, and getting more and more disciplined.”
Solar America Cities
Tiger Team member Jeannette Moore puts it more viscerally. “People in city agencies have been talking about solar for years. Usually, they’ve gotten a little sleepy. Then we show up. We tell them, we’re going to do solar right now. That wakes everyone up.”
The program was conceived by DOE acting program manager Tom Kimbis in a casual drawing on a piece of paper on an airplane trip. He passed it back to a colleague who thought it was a nice idea but saw no reason why anyone would participate.
They would participate, Kimbis decided, because “Cities are strapped for cash,” he said in an interview. “We’d give them money. But we’d give more than money. Two hundred k [dollars] is a lot in Ann Arbor but nothing in New York. We’d give them wording for legislation, when legislators call us for advice. A website where they could exchange ideas, so that New York could see what San Francisco was doing. And we’d give it a name — Solar America Cities — because for some reason cities like names [like Sunbelt Cities]. Amazingly, it makes people want to move there.”
The remarkably energetic effort celebrated its first anniversary in Tucson on April 14-16.
One-hundred twenty involved participants from 25 selected cities (chosen competitively from among 50 to 75 applicants, says Kimbis) explained or absorbed lessons of success or failure in attempts to use solar not only to save energy and lower greenhouse gases but generate low-interest loans, foster start-up companies, attract technically educated personnel, create high-paying jobs, and develop solar education courses. Other areas under discussion included solidifying local political support, writing workable inspection codes, supplying wording for appropriate legislation when asked, and choosing appropriate and sometimes “out-of-the-box” materials and locations for various forms of solar.
“I’m amazed this is a DOE project,” says Mustapha Beydoun, a research scientist at the Houston Advanced Research Center. “It’s so inclusive. It’s good to see who’s tried what and what works and what doesn’t,” he said of the conference, “so you don’t have to reinvent the wheel. Problems often come up exactly where you never expected them to.”
While from a flat financial viewpoint, the dour view is correct that solar is still too expensive to be practical — in some areas, three times the cost of generating electricity from coal — some attendees pointed out that solar power is strongest when the demand for electricity is greatest, at the hottest part of summer days. Thus, it could be used to lower the number of power plants needed to meet air conditioning and other power needs of these peak hours.
Solar electricity also requires no water to convert its fuel into electricity — a possible problem for other methods of generating power as fresh water becomes scarcer.
An oft-repeated mantra, often in the form of graphs, at the convention was that the costs of other fuels are rising while the cost of converting sunlight to electricity is declining.
Rick Scheu, CEO of Portland, Ore.-based King Solar Products, said that administrators in Germany had decided it was useless to compare the various subsidies for different forms of energy production: “About solar, they decided, ‘We need it and we’re putting it in.’”
Austin Mayor Will Wynn (“That’s really my name. My parents did it to me,”) said that city buildings will be 100 percent renewable-energy run by Jan. 1, 2009, with 15 megawatts of solar online by 2012 and 100 solar megawatts online by 2020.
“I tell people that Texas was America’s number-one energy state in the 20th century, and if we want to remain that in the 21st, we need to work on starting up companies that harness the sun,” he said.
So the enthusiasm was there, along with more cynical motives like the need to meet legislated requirements on alternative energy production, the carrot of tax incentives, and the funding and technical assistance provided by the DOE program.
The program distributed $200,000 cash to each chosen city for the execution of their developing citywide solar adoption plan, and also makes available a kind of gift certificate of $200,000 drawn on DOE that pays for work by Sandia and other labs for solar technical assistance. The cities contribute, on average, $200,000 of their own, though larger cities like Boston and New York contribute far more. The city population must be at least 100,000.
Asked what will bring other cities to the table once the two-year DOE-funded program ceases in fiscal 2009, DOE program “market transformation director” Charlie Hemmeline said that the agency’s solar programs weren’t going away, and suggested that cities later interested in getting help to follow the path laid out by the 25 chosen cities might not find a deaf ear at DOE.
And there’s more. The Solar American Showcase program and the Government Solar Installation Program are less publicized but equally real parts of DOE’s solar effort.
The showcase program provides $200,000 and Tiger Team technical assistance to companies, universities, cities, or states interested in trying new solar technologies. The winners include Forest City Military Communities in Hawaii, the city of San Jose, the Orange County Convention Center in Orlando, Fla., Montclair State University in New Jersey, and a Housing Authority project in northeast Denver.
The government installation program provides solar technical assistance to federal entities.
Sandia provided two Tiger Team members for these projects last year, says Vipin: one at the Smithsonian Zoo last spring and summer, figuring out the photovoltaic needs for the elephant house (3,000 sq. ft. of photovoltaics would do the job for cooling and lights) and for the US Capitol Building complex. “The Tiger Team did a comprehensive study there on creative ways to adopt solar without running against the stringent historic architecture restrictions there,” Gupta says.
Some areas in which Tiger Teams provide help:* Tech assistance in photovoltaics, solar water heating, concentrated solar power, solar water, air heating technologies; solar resource assessment (time of year/day)
* Architectural structural support: building codes review, architectural and structural analysis, preparation of bid specifications, outreach communications, best practices.
Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration. With main facilities in Albuquerque, N.M., and Livermore, Calif., Sandia has major R&D responsibilities in national security, energy and environmental technologies, and economic competitiveness.
Chris Burroughs | Newswise
Producing electricity during flight
20.09.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
Solar-to-fuel system recycles CO2 to make ethanol and ethylene
19.09.2017 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering
22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy