The exploitation and utilization of new energy sources are considered to be among today's major challenges. Solar energy plays a central role, and its direct conversion into chemical energy, for example hydrogen generation by water splitting, is one of its interesting variants.
Titanium oxide-based photocatalysis is the presently most efficient, yet little understood conversion process. In cooperation with colleagues from Germany and abroad, scientists of the KIT Institute for Functional Interfaces (IFG) have studied the basic mechanisms of photochemistry by the example of titania and have presented new detailed findings.
Even though hydrogen production from water and sunlight by means of oxide powders has been studied extensively for several decades, the basic physical and chemical mechanisms of the processes involved cannot yet be described in a satisfactory way. Together with colleagues from the universities of St. Andrews (Scotland) and Bochum and Helmholtz-Forschungszentrum Berlin, scientists at KIT's Institute for Functional Interfaces, headed by Professor Christof Wöll, have succeeded in gathering new findings on the fundamental mechanisms of photochemistry on titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Titanium dioxide, or titania, is a photoactive material occurring in nature in the rutile and anatase modifications, the latter of which being characterized by a ten times higher photochemical activity. When the white TiO2 powder, which is also used as a pigment in paints and sunscreens, is exposed to light, electrons are excited and can, for example, split water into its components oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen produced in that way is a "clean" energy source: No climate-killing greenhouse gases are generated but only water is produced during combustion. Titanium dioxide is also used to manufacture self-cleaning surfaces from which unwanted films are removed through photochemical processes triggered by incident sunlight. In hospitals, this effect is used for sterilizing specially coated instruments by means of UV irradiation.
So far, the physical mechanisms of these photochemical reactions on titania surfaces and especially the reason for the much higher activity of anatase could not be explained. The powder particles used in photoreactors are as tiny as a few nanometers only and are thus too small for use in studies by means of the powerful methods of surface analysis. By using instead mm-sized single-crystal substrates, the researchers were for the first time able to precisely study photochemical processes on the surface of titanium dioxide by means of a novel infrared spectrometer.
Using a laser-based technique, the scientists, in addition, determined the lifetime of light-induced electronic excitations inside the TiO2 crystals. According to Professor Christof Wöll, Head of the IFG, exact information about these processes is of great importance: "A short lifetime means that the excited electrons fall back again at once: We witness some kind of an internal short circuit. In the case of a long lifetime, the electrons remain in the excited state long enough to be able to reach the surface of the crystal and to induce chemical processes." Anatase is particularly well suited for the latter purpose because it is provided with a special electronic structure that prevents "internal short circuits". Knowledge of this feature will allow the researchers to further optimize shape, size, and doping of anatase particles used inside photoreactors. The objective is to develop photoactive materials with higher efficiencies and longer lifetimes: "The results obtained by Professor Wöll and his co-workers are of great importance regarding the generation of electrical and chemical energy from sunlight, and especially regarding the optimization of photoreactors," says Professor Olaf Deutschmann, spokesman of the Helmholtz Research Training Group on "Energy-related Catalysis".
The results obtained by the researchers have been published in Physical Review Letters. The online version of the paper is available on http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v106/i13/e138302
Mingchun Xu, Youkun Gao, Elias Martinez Moreno, Marinus Kunst, Martin Muhler, Yuemin Wang, Hicham Idriss, Christof Wöll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 138302 (2011)
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a public corporation according to the legislation of the state of Baden-Württemberg. It fulfills the mission of a university and the mission of a national research center of the Helmholtz Association. KIT focuses on a knowledge triangle that links the tasks of research, teaching, and innovation.
Monika Landgraf | EurekAlert!
Greater Range and Longer Lifetime
26.10.2016 | Technologie Lizenz-Büro (TLB) der Baden-Württembergischen Hochschulen GmbH
26.10.2016 | Vienna University of Technology
Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.
This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...
Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion
Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
26.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering
26.10.2016 | Awards Funding
26.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering