Several large earthquakes with magnitude higher than 8 on the Richter scale have already occurred along the margins between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, under the ocean off Ecuador and Colombia. This region is vulnerable, all the more so because since the 1980s, Ecuador’s oil export terminal is sited within it. More information is needed on this zone of extremely high seismic risk. For this reason, two scientific campaigns, “Amadeus” and “Esmeraldas” were launched on 3 February and will run until 6 April 2005.
These campaigns, conducted by the mixed research unit (UMR) Geosciences-Azur (involving the IRD, CNRS, Universities Pierre et Marie Curie and Nice Sophia-Antipolis) working jointly with the University of Bordeaux, the Marine Technology Unit of the CSIC (Higher Council for Scientific Research) at Barcelona, and its international partners: Canadian (University of Victoria, PGC), Colombian (DIMAR, EAFIT and Caldas Universities, and INGEOMINAS) and Ecuadorian (INOCAR, EPN, Petroproduction) have the objective of studying the natural hazards associated with the large subduction earthquakes, submarine avalanches and tsunamis they trigger. The ocean-going campaigns are being conducted on the IFREMER research ship Atalante.
In 1906, a strong earthquake of 8.8 magnitude shook this part of the world. It was induced by the slipping of the Nazca plate under the North Andean margin. The two plates converge at an average rate of 5.5 cm/year. The slipping is expressed as a fracture zone about 500 km long. Reactivation occurred by earthquakes in 1942, 1958 and 1979, of magnitude 7.7 to 8.2, which provoked large tsunamis and submarine sediment slides.
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In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
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A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
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