Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Variation in Diesel Exhausts Leads to Call for More Thorough Testing

07.06.2004


Samples of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) collected from automobiles and forklifts varied widely in both their composition and their toxicity, according to a pair of studies published today in the June issue of the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP). The studies show that the two samples of DEP have different physical and chemical properties, as well as different mutagenic effects in bacteria and pulmonary toxicity effects in mice. The results confirm that DEP can be highly variable, leading the authors to suggest that future DEP health effects research would benefit from a more complete characterization of a wide variety of samples beyond the two standard samples used for more than a decade.

For approximately 10 years, most experiments on the health effects of DEP have largely used just two samples for health effects research: those generated by an automobile engine or by a forklift engine. The automobile-generated DEP has been tested extensively for its effects on the heart and lungs (pulmonary toxicity), but not at all for its ability to induce mutations in DNA (mutagenicity). The forklift-generated DEP, on the other hand, has been tested primarily for mutagenicity in bacteria and in only two studies for pulmonary toxicity.

Analyses performed in the two studies reported here found that almost every physical and chemical feature studied was markedly different between the samples. The automobile DEP had 10 times the organic carbon and about 13 times the extractable organic material of the forklift DEP, but less than one-sixth the elemental carbon. In addition, the two samples produced widely different mutagenic effects in bacteria and pulmonary toxicities in mice. The researchers believe that the design and operation of the engines, along with collection methods, could account for much of the variation.



Concerns over health impacts of DEP exposure have been raised for years, with recent attention including the possible health risk for children riding diesel-fueled school buses. There is also new evidence that living in proximity to highways is associated with adverse birth outcomes.

The authors of today’s studies argue for an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to DEP health effects research that takes into account the variety seen in the different exhaust samples. Furthermore, said Dr. Jim Burkhart, science editor for EHP, “We see from these studies not only the wide variety of DEP compositions, but also variations in biologic responses. A better understanding of the variations would certainly enhance our understanding of the real causes of any potential human health impacts we need to study.”

The lead authors of the studies were Dr. Pramila Singh of the College of Veterinary Medicine at North Carolina State University, now a postdoctoral fellow at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Dr. David M. DeMarini, a genetic toxicologist at the EPA’s National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory. The Singh article, including a complete list of authors, is available free at http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2003/6579/abstract.html. The DeMarini article, including a complete list of authors, is available free at http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2003/6578/abstract.html.

EHP is published by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More information is available online at http://www.ehponline.org/.

Crystal Smith | newswise
Further information:
http://www.ehponline.org/
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2003/6579/abstract.html
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2003/6578/abstract.html

More articles from Automotive Engineering:

nachricht 3D scans for the automotive industry
16.01.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Improvement of the operating range and increasing of the reliability of integrated circuits
09.11.2016 | Technologie Lizenz-Büro (TLB) der Baden-Württembergischen Hochschulen GmbH

All articles from Automotive Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>