Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Variation in Diesel Exhausts Leads to Call for More Thorough Testing

07.06.2004


Samples of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) collected from automobiles and forklifts varied widely in both their composition and their toxicity, according to a pair of studies published today in the June issue of the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP). The studies show that the two samples of DEP have different physical and chemical properties, as well as different mutagenic effects in bacteria and pulmonary toxicity effects in mice. The results confirm that DEP can be highly variable, leading the authors to suggest that future DEP health effects research would benefit from a more complete characterization of a wide variety of samples beyond the two standard samples used for more than a decade.

For approximately 10 years, most experiments on the health effects of DEP have largely used just two samples for health effects research: those generated by an automobile engine or by a forklift engine. The automobile-generated DEP has been tested extensively for its effects on the heart and lungs (pulmonary toxicity), but not at all for its ability to induce mutations in DNA (mutagenicity). The forklift-generated DEP, on the other hand, has been tested primarily for mutagenicity in bacteria and in only two studies for pulmonary toxicity.

Analyses performed in the two studies reported here found that almost every physical and chemical feature studied was markedly different between the samples. The automobile DEP had 10 times the organic carbon and about 13 times the extractable organic material of the forklift DEP, but less than one-sixth the elemental carbon. In addition, the two samples produced widely different mutagenic effects in bacteria and pulmonary toxicities in mice. The researchers believe that the design and operation of the engines, along with collection methods, could account for much of the variation.



Concerns over health impacts of DEP exposure have been raised for years, with recent attention including the possible health risk for children riding diesel-fueled school buses. There is also new evidence that living in proximity to highways is associated with adverse birth outcomes.

The authors of today’s studies argue for an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to DEP health effects research that takes into account the variety seen in the different exhaust samples. Furthermore, said Dr. Jim Burkhart, science editor for EHP, “We see from these studies not only the wide variety of DEP compositions, but also variations in biologic responses. A better understanding of the variations would certainly enhance our understanding of the real causes of any potential human health impacts we need to study.”

The lead authors of the studies were Dr. Pramila Singh of the College of Veterinary Medicine at North Carolina State University, now a postdoctoral fellow at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Dr. David M. DeMarini, a genetic toxicologist at the EPA’s National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory. The Singh article, including a complete list of authors, is available free at http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2003/6579/abstract.html. The DeMarini article, including a complete list of authors, is available free at http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2003/6578/abstract.html.

EHP is published by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More information is available online at http://www.ehponline.org/.

Crystal Smith | newswise
Further information:
http://www.ehponline.org/
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2003/6579/abstract.html
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2003/6578/abstract.html

More articles from Automotive Engineering:

nachricht 3D scans for the automotive industry
16.01.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Improvement of the operating range and increasing of the reliability of integrated circuits
09.11.2016 | Technologie Lizenz-Büro (TLB) der Baden-Württembergischen Hochschulen GmbH

All articles from Automotive Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>