Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers to determine if aeration reduces compaction, runoff on no-till fields

03.04.2009
Much of Texas' wheat may be grazed as a part of a dual-use crop. But many fields are still prepared using conventional tillage, which may not efficiently capture rainfall – a key to economic success in a semi-arid environment, said a Texas AgriLife Research scientist.

Dr. Paul DeLaune, environmental soil scientist at the Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Vernon, said tillage operations can increase soil compaction, thereby increasing runoff.

Each year, depending on market conditions, up to 75 percent of wheat planted in Texas may be grazed, and of that, 95 percent is under conventional tillage, DeLaune said.

"There is a perception among some producers considering no-till production that using no-till in dual-use wheat production will increase compaction and therefore reduce water infiltration and decrease yields," he said. "Studies are needed to determine whether or not this perception is valid."

One management practice to potentially reduce compaction and/or increase water infiltration is the use of an aerator in no-till dual-use systems, DeLaune said.

The tines of the aerator can be varied from 0 to 10 degrees offset, with soil disturbance increased by increasing the offset, he said. The aerator will disturb the soil down to the depth of 8 inches, yet leave considerable residue on the soil surface.

At the Smith-Walker research field near Vernon, DeLaune studied the impact of different tillage operations in dual-use wheat on runoff quantity, water quality and nutrient loss.

Tillage treatments were applied in early September and included: conventional-till, no-till and no-till with aerator offsets at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 degrees. Although two production systems were to be compared (graze-out and graze plus grain), no livestock grazing took place due to drought and poor forage production. However, there was extensive grazing from whitetail deer, he said.

In mid-December, 1.5- by 2-meter plots were established in the two production systems. Rainfall simulators were used to apply a runoff-producing event to the crop, he said.

A simulated rainfall of about 2.75 inches per hour was showered over the crop and allowed to continue until one-half hour after runoff had started. The runoff water was collected, measured and analyzed for quantity and quality.

In his study, DeLaune timed the minutes it took to achieve runoff. He said the runoff came quickest, in the highest quantity and with the most soil erosion from the conventional-tilled plots.

The total amounts of ammonium and phosphorous in the runoff water were higher also from the conventional-tilled plots.

There was no statistical difference in runoff volume, soil erosion and nutrient runoff amounts between the no-till plots and the aerated treatments, he said.

These initial results show that the use of an AerWay aerator may not be economical, based solely on soil and water conservation. Grazing effects and grain yields may indicate otherwise as the study continues, DeLaune said. Grazing effects and grain yields were not taken due to the extreme and persistent drought in 2008-2009.

Runoff quantity, water quality and yield data will continue to be collected over the next two years.

Dr. Paul DeLaune | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.tamu.edu

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Climate change, population growth may lead to open ocean aquaculture
05.10.2017 | Oregon State University

nachricht New machine evaluates soybean at harvest for quality
04.10.2017 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

Im Focus: New nanomaterial can extract hydrogen fuel from seawater

Hybrid material converts more sunlight and can weather seawater's harsh conditions

It's possible to produce hydrogen to power fuel cells by extracting the gas from seawater, but the electricity required to do it makes the process costly. UCF...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Study suggests oysters offer hot spot for reducing nutrient pollution

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

17.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

World first for reading digitally encoded synthetic molecules

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>