Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Gene Researchers Close In On Nicotine’s "Evil Cousin"

18.11.2002


Nicotine isn’t all bad, despite its addictive qualities and its presence in tobacco products, increasingly taboo in these health-conscious times. As a chemical compound, nicotine even has beneficial properties. It’s used around the world as a relatively cheap, environmentally friendly insecticide, repelling bugs that attack tobacco and other plants, and - contrary to popular misconceptions - it is not a carcinogen.


Dr. Ralph Dewey



Take a nicotine molecule and snip off a methyl group, though, and you’ve got nicotine’s evil cousin: nornicotine. (A methyl group is one carbon and three hydrogen atoms.) This truncated version of nicotine, helped by certain tobacco-leaf microbes, converts to nitrosamines - potent carcinogens - during the tobacco-curing process. If researchers could find the genetic location of the enzyme that removes nicotine’s methyl group, tobacco with little or no nornicotine would be possible.

That’s the task of Dr. Ralph Dewey, professor of crop science in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at North Carolina State University. Working with select lines of Burley tobacco, he and his colleagues are trying to isolate the nicotine N-demethylase gene from among the 25,000 or so unique genes found in tobacco.


When they’re successful, says Dewey, they’ll have achieved several key goals. "One, we’ll have created a large genomic database. Two, we’ll have the tools needed to reduce the levels of harmful nitrosamines in Burley tobacco. And three, we’ll develop information that could, perhaps, lead to alternate uses for this important North Carolina crop."

Tobacco’s genome, however, is just now being investigated, so Dewey and fellow researchers at the Genome Research Laboratory on NC State’s Centennial Campus are faced with a painstaking process of elimination. They do have a few clues, though. Nicotine changes to nornicotine when tobacco is "senescing" - getting old and turning yellow - so genes involved in the aging process are getting a close look. They also suspect that the chromosomal location of the culprit gene is "unstable," or prone to transposition or mutation, so such locations also warrant an interested eye. And if they can verify that the gene is of the type known as a "P450," they’ll have narrowed their search to about 500 genes - which is progress in Dewey’s line of work.

Dewey also has access to the Genome Research Lab’s microarray technology, which automates and computerizes a process once done by hand. Capable of placing up to 5,000 genes on microscope slides and showing results on a high-resolution scanner, the high-tech tool is speeding the search for the unwelcome, nornicotine-triggering gene.

Funded in part by the Philip Morris Companies, Dewey’s research is a modest but important part of the larger Tobacco Genome Project ongoing at NC State’s Genome Research Lab. Recognizing the huge role that tobacco plays in North Carolina’s - and other states’ - economy, and the need to both reduce its toxic compounds and find more uses for the crop, Dewey and his colleagues methodically pursue their quarry in the daunting molecular realm. Their efforts are largely unheralded, and success - so far - is elusive. But the days of nornicotine, nicotine’s ominous cousin, are probably numbered.

Ralph Dewey | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ncsu.edu/news/press_releases/02_11/305.htm

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Farming with forests
23.09.2016 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences (ACES)

nachricht Ecological intensification of agriculture
09.09.2016 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-Ever 3D Printed Excavator Project Advances Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing R&D

Heavy construction machinery is the focus of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s latest advance in additive manufacturing research. With industry partners and university students, ORNL researchers are designing and producing the world’s first 3D printed excavator, a prototype that will leverage large-scale AM technologies and explore the feasibility of printing with metal alloys.

Increasing the size and speed of metal-based 3D printing techniques, using low-cost alloys like steel and aluminum, could create new industrial applications...

Im Focus: New welding process joins dissimilar sheets better

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...

Im Focus: First quantum photonic circuit with electrically driven light source

Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.

Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Paper – Panacea Green Infrastructure?

30.09.2016 | Event News

HLF: From an experiment to an establishment

29.09.2016 | Event News

European Health Forum Gastein 2016 kicks off today

28.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

First-Ever 3D Printed Excavator Project Advances Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing R&D

30.09.2016 | Materials Sciences

New Technique for Finding Weakness in Earth’s Crust

30.09.2016 | Earth Sciences

Cells migrate collectively by intermittent bursts of activity

30.09.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>