Washington's famous apple industry brought in $1.4 billion in 2006, but a disease is cutting into those profits.
Lenticel breakdown disorder, known as LB, creates brown spots and indentations most commonly on the 'Gala' variety of apple, but these signs don't show up until after apples are harvested, stored, and processed. Time and materials are spent on fruit that can't be sold, and if a shipment goes out before symptoms are detected, the reputation of the grower is jeopardized.
Researchers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, led by Eric A. Curry, are looking for ways to reduce the incidence and/or severity of LB in 'Gala' apples. The study, published in the October-December 2008 issue of HortTechnology, compared several coatings sprayed on apples in three commercial orchards with a history of LB.
The coatings were EpiShield™ made from waxy plant extracts, PrimaFresh®, a concentrate of vegetable oils, and Natural Shine™, a concentrate of natural carnauba wax.
In 2005, selected trees in Chelan, Washington, were sprayed one day before harvest. The same formulas were sprayed on a set of trees in Malaga, Washington, in 2006 either 1 week before harvest or once a week for 3 weeks before harvest. In 2007 in Linares, Chile, the same formulas were sprayed on trees either 1 week before harvest or once a week for the 4 weeks before the harvest.
Harvested apples were stored and evaluated for quality after 90 and 180 days. A subset of the apples underwent a simulated packing process in which apples were soap-washed, cool-water rinsed, waxed, polished, and warm-air dried. After 3 days of storage, these apples were assessed based on the number of LB pits.
During storage, Chelan apples showed severe symptoms of LB regardless of treatment, suggesting insufficient time before harvest for the coatings to work. Typically the symptoms get worse with storage, but the study found the presence of LB to be strongest at 90 days, with little difference between 90 and 180 days.
Malaga apples also showed the most LB at 90 days. However, three treatments before harvest did reduce LB between 41% and 65% compared to untreated apples. At harvest, the fruit quality seemed unaffected, but some ripening effects increased with storage time. Apples treated three times were the least firm of all of the groups.
Of the Linares apples receiving a single application, only the EpiShield apples had fewer LB symptoms. When all four treatments were applied, apples had less LB—between 48% and 61% compared to the untreated apples. "Generally, multiple applications were more effective than single treatments for reducing incidence of LB," the study reports.
The researchers point out that further study is needed to better understand the optimum time and number of applications in relation to climate in order to make the most of LB-reducing treatments.
Michael W. Neff | EurekAlert!
Raiding the rape field
23.05.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
New technique reveals details of forest fire recovery
17.05.2018 | DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory
The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.
Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...
A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.
The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...
At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.
At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...
There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?
At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
25.05.2018 | Event News
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering
25.05.2018 | Life Sciences