A microscopic look into the genes of a Colorado wheat variety has allowed Texas AgriLife Research scientists to identify a wheat streak mosaic virus-resistance gene.
Wheat streak mosaic virus is one of the most common wheat viruses found in the 75 million acres of wheat across the U.S. – 3.3 million acres in Texas, said Dr. Charlie Rush, AgriLife Research plant pathologist in Amarillo.
Because there are no chemicals labeled for control of the wheat curl mite, the vector for this virus, researchers must work with wheat breeders to try to find some resistance, Rush said.
Dr. Huangjun Lu, who was a post-doctorate research associate in Amarillo during the study, led the AgriLife Research-Amarillo team of Rush; Dr. Jackie Rudd, wheat breeder; Jacob Price, associate researcher; and Dr. Ravindra Devkota, assistant research scientist. Lu has since become an assistant professor at the University of Florida.
The research was funded by grants from the Texas Wheat Producers Board, the Texas AgriLife Research Monocot Improvement Program and the Texas Cropping Systems Program. This research will be featured in an upcoming issue of Crop Science journal, Rudd said.
"Our goal was to look at the resistance in a germplasm line that was used to produce a variety of wheat in western Kansas called RonL," he said. "This variety's resistance is well known but the inheritance has not been studied until now."
The first part of the study compared the resistance of a known-susceptible variety to wheat streak mosaic virus, Karl 92, with a known-resistant variety, CO960293-2, which is a parent of the RonL variety, Rudd said.
A Nebraska wheat variety, Mace, which showed a high level of wheat streak mosaic resistance was included in the study, as were TAM 111 and TAM 112, two of the top varieties developed by the Amarillo wheat breeding program and grown in Texas that also show some resistance to the virus in field trials, he said.
The growth chamber experiment confirmed previous field work, Rudd said. Mace and CO960293-2 were highly resistant, while Karl 92 was highly susceptible. Both TAM 111 and TAM 112 were intermediate in resistance, with TAM 112 being slightly better than TAM 111.
For the genetic portion of the study, the Colorado line was crossed with TAM 111 and based on that cross, Lu determined the wheat streak mosaic virus resistance was due to a single dominant gene from the Colorado germplasm line, Rudd said.
Further molecular mapping has found the location of the specific gene that provides the resistance, he said.
Rudd explained that wheat has 21 pairs of chromosomes and this gene was mapped to chromosome 3B, "so we now know the general location, and we are developing molecular markers that can be used to track the gene in wheat breeding programs."
Only the Mace gene with known resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus had been named previously and it is Wsm1, he said.
"Now that we have determined they are different genes, this newly identified gene will be known as Wsm2."
The difference, however, is that Wsm1 is on a chromosomal translocation from intermediate wheat grass, a wild relative of wheat, which means it could carry along some less-desirable characteristics such as lower yields, Rudd said. The Wsm2 gene was identified from a bread wheat that does not have the negative traits associated with it.
"Breeders from throughout the U.S. have been using RonL and other sources of Wsm2," he said. "Now that it has been identified, they can track that through marker-assisted selection."
The AgriLife Research wheat breeding program already has a number of crosses with the Wsm2 gene in it, Rudd said. With this information, they now can develop wheat streak mosaic virus resistant varieties quicker.
Previously, the varieties had to go through a series of field trials to help select for the desired trait, he said. The consistency of seeing the symptoms in the field is environmentally influenced and differs from season to season.
"This way, we can develop resistance without the laborious field testing," Rudd said. "A lot of programs will use this information to accelerate their breeding and increase the levels of resistance in new cultivars."
Dr. Jackie Rudd | EurekAlert!
Energy crop production on conservation lands may not boost greenhouse gases
13.03.2017 | Penn State
How nature creates forest diversity
07.03.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
28.03.2017 | Life Sciences
28.03.2017 | Information Technology
28.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy