Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Agriculture Scientists Building Better Beef

15.03.2011
It is a lesson taught in every school: Quality can be judged by one¡¯s grade, and scientists with Oklahoma State University¡¯s Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources are working to help beef producers get the best meat grade possible.

¡°Marbling is white flecks of fat within the meat muscle,¡± said Gerald Horn, OSU Graduates of Distinction professor in beef nutrition and management. ¡°The greater the amount of marbling in beef, the higher its grade because marbling makes beef more tender, flavorful and juicy.¡±

USDA Prime beef ¨C approximately 2 percent of graded beef ¨C has the highest levels of fat marbling, so it is the most tender and flavorful. Most of the graded beef sold in supermarkets is USDA Choice or USDA Select. The protein, vitamin and mineral content of beef are similar regardless of the grade.

¡°Nutrition and management practices that increase intramuscular fat deposition relative to other fat depots have the potential to decrease production of excess fat, improve the efficiency of beef production and be beneficial to the U.S. beef industry in meeting the growing world demand for high-quality beef cuts,¡± Horn said.

Intramuscular fat deposition develops early during growth, and can be influenced by pre-feedyard management practices. All cattle start out eating grass; approximately 75 percent of them are eventually shipped to feedyards where they are grown to maturity, or "finished," being fed specially formulated grain-based diets.

¡°Rate of weight gain is a key determinate of profitability in stocker cattle operations,¡± Horn said. ¡°In general, breakeven selling price decreases as average daily gain increases.¡±

The objective of Horn and the DASNR research team was to examine the effect of forage energy intake and type of ruminal fermentation on growth performance, partitioning of fat among depots and carcass characteristics of stocker cattle. An important outcome of this research will be an increased understanding of the physiological mechanisms by which muscle growth and metabolism influence marbling development.

¡°Our research showed stocker cattle production programs that result in higher rates of gain and/or higher ruminal propionate concentrations increase marbling and backfat,¡± he said. ¡°At moderate to high rates of gain, backfat increases more rapidly than marbling; this indicates that moderate rates of gain during the stocker phase could enhance marbling relative to backfat.¡±

Horn said while there were wide ranges in marbling scores and backfat thickness at the end of the grazing program, marbling scores at the end of the finishing phase were not different when the steers were slaughtered at a common backfat endpoint.

However, days on feed during the finishing phase of the DASNR research project ranged from 83 days to 138 days.

¡°Greater average daily gain during the stocker phase is important for decreasing breakeven prices and increasing profitability in the feedlot,¡± Horn said. ¡°This is particularly important during this new era of higher grain prices and increased cost of gain in the feedlot.¡±

The potential effects of nutrition-management practices on marbling development are not just a matter of increasing fat. Of the four fat depots in the body ¨C visceral, intermuscular, subcutaneous and marbling ¨C the last one to develop is marbling.

¡ñ Acetate serves as the primary source of energy or ¡°substrate¡± for subcutaneous fat, whereas glucose serves as the primary substrate for marbling. Propionate is the primary precursor of glucose.

¡ñ High-quality forages such as wheat pasture provide more ruminal propionate than low-quality dormant forages, and supplementation of corn for cattle grazed on dormant native range increases propionate production.

Academic and industry studies that address the question of nutrition-management practices on marbling development historically have been conducted during the feedlot phase of production. This present DASNR study is unique in that it focuses on factors influencing marbling development during the stocker phase.

In addition to Horn, research team members include OSU¡¯s Clint Krehbiel, Phillip Lancaster, Udaya DeSilva, Gretchen Hilton, Evin Sharman and Texas Tech University¡¯s Jessica Starkey.

Oklahoma State University, U. S. Department of Agriculture, State and Local governments cooperating; Oklahoma State University in compliance with Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order 11246 as amended, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and other federal and state laws and regulations, does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, age, religion, disability, or status as a veteran in any of its policies, practices, or procedures, and is an equal opportunity employer.

Donald Stotts | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.okstate.edu

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht New insight into why Pierce's disease is so deadly to grapevines
11.06.2018 | University of California - Davis

nachricht Where are Europe’s last primary forests?
29.05.2018 | Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

Im Focus: Photoexcited graphene puzzle solved

A boost for graphene-based light detectors

Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...

Im Focus: Water is not the same as water

Water molecules exist in two different forms with almost identical physical properties. For the first time, researchers have succeeded in separating the two forms to show that they can exhibit different chemical reactivities. These results were reported by researchers from the University of Basel and their colleagues in Hamburg in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

From a chemical perspective, water is a molecule in which a single oxygen atom is linked to two hydrogen atoms. It is less well known that water exists in two...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Novel method for investigating pore geometry in rocks

18.06.2018 | Earth Sciences

Diamond watch components

18.06.2018 | Process Engineering

New type of photosynthesis discovered

18.06.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>