Materials sciences involves the research, development, characterization, manufacture and processing of materials.
Copper, steel and iron were produced as early as the Neolithic, roughly around 4,300 B.C. Copper and iron were produced as far back as the New Stone Age, roughly 4,300 B.C. This was then followed by the transition to the Bronze Age. It wasn't until the Iron Age that apart from iron, steel and copper, aluminum was also produced using the Hall-Héroult process. For a long time, materials sciences was interested almost exclusively in metals such as iron, copper and steel. However, this has changed with the rediscovery of concrete. While the first, mass-produced plastic materials eventually attracted the interest of the broad public, materials sciences continues to carry out research into iron, copper and steel.
Copper, steel and iron were the first metals that mankind became familiar with as it evolved. Copper is very easy to process. As a result, copper was already being used 10,000 years ago by the oldest known cultures 10,000. The era of large-scale copper use (between 3,000 and 5,000 B.C.) is referred to as the Copper Age. The devotees of alchemy associate copper with Venus, the symbol of femininity. The first mirrors were even made from copper. The Roman Empire was the largest producer of copper prior to the Industrial Age. Copper remains an extremely popular material.
Mankind has acquired long years of practical experience with steel. Steel is a preferred material in engineering because of its durability, excellent corrosion properties and suitability for welding. It is significantly more stable than copper. The European steel registry lists more than 2,300 types of steel. Coal and steel served as the pillars of heavy industry over a long period of time and were thus the foundations of political power. Steel is defined as an iron-carbon alloy with less than 2.06 percent carbon content. Steel, or iron, has a density of 7.85-7.87 g/cm3. Steel melts at a temperature that can be as high as 1,536°C and therefore withstands much higher temperatures than copper.Steel was first produced around 1,000 B.C., much later than copper. In an ecological sense, steel is a sustainable material because it can be continuously reused with minimal quality loss .
The use of iron was first recorded around 4,000 B.C. in Egypt. It was a solid iron used for decorations and for making spear tips. It was more suitable for these purposes than steel or copper. Smelted iron appeared later in Mesopotamia and Egypt, but it was only intended for ceremonial purposes. Perhaps iron came about as a byproduct of bronze production. After the Hethiter developed a method to produce iron, cultures became increasingly reliant on iron between 1,600 and 1,200 B.C. Iron is thought to be a major element of the earth's core, along with nickel. Iron is produced by reducing iron ore through a chemical reaction with carbon. In contrast to steel or copper, iron is produced in blast furnaces.
Materials management deals with the research, development, manufacturing and processing of raw and industrial materials. Key aspects here are biological and medical issues, which play an increasingly important role in this field.
innovations-report offers in-depth articles related to the development and application of materials and the structure and properties of new materials.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new, exotic form of insulating material with a metallic surface that could enable more efficient electronics or even quantum computing. The researchers developed a new method for analyzing existing chemical compounds that relies on the mathematical properties like symmetry that govern the repeating patterns seen in everyday wallpaper.
"The beauty of topology is that one can apply symmetry principles to find and categorize materials," said B. Andrei Bernevig, a professor of physics at...20.07.2018 | Read more
The properties of a solid depend on the arrangement of its atoms, which form a periodic crystal structure. At the nanoscale, arrangements that break this periodic structure can drastically alter the behavior of the material, but this is difficult to measure. Recent advances by scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory are starting to unravel this mystery.
Using state-of-the art neutron and synchrotron X-ray scattering, Argonne scientists and their collaborators are helping to answer long-held questions about a...20.07.2018 | Read more
Your everyday permanent markers, glue sticks and packing tape may offer a surprisingly low-tech solution to a long-standing nuisance in the manufacturing industry: Making soft and ductile, or so-called "gummy" metals easier to cut.
What makes inks and adhesives effective isn't their chemical content, but their stickiness to the surface of any gummy metal such as nickel, aluminum,...19.07.2018 | Read more
Although machine learning technique gained amazing success in many aspects, its application in crystal structure predictions and materials design is still under developing. Recently, Prof. Jian Sun's group at the Department of Physics, Nanjing University implemented a machine-learning algorithm into the crystal structure search method. They use a machine learning algorithm to fit a model to describe the potential energy surface and use it to filter the crystal structures initially. This can effectively enhance the search efficiency of crystal structure prediction.
On the other hand, hybrid compounds of transition metals and light elements, especially transition metal nitrides have been widely studied for their high...18.07.2018 | Read more
Rice U., Northwestern researchers make and test atom-thick boron's unique domains
Borophene, the atomically flat form of boron with unique properties, is even more interesting when different forms of the material mix and mingle, according to...17.07.2018 | Read more
Brown University researchers and collaborators from Tsinghua University in China have shown that nanoclusters made from boron and lanthanide elements form highly stable and symmetric structures with interesting magnetic properties.
The findings, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on Monday, July 9, suggest that these nanoclusters may be useful as molecular...13.07.2018 | Read more
One of the main features of additive manufacturing processes such as 3D-printing is that the complexity of the component shapes is virtually unlimited. High surface quality in metallic components can frequently be achieved only via milling or grinding operations. But milling of thin-walled parts in particular often cause vibrations which impact negatively on part accuracy and on machining time. The Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT and the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen will be presenting special-purpose support structures which can eliminate these vibrations in post-processing operations at Farnborough International Airshow from 16 – 22 July 2018.
As a rule, metallic components manufactured additively in a Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process, are designed to have larger-than-usual oversize to allow for...12.07.2018 | Read more
A group of researchers from Aalto University in Finland and Sun Yat-sen University in China provide a standardized approach to improve the accuracy and reliability of contact angle measurements of surfaces
Knowing how surface materials interact with liquids is crucial to everything from printing to recovering oil spills from water. Being able to accurately and...11.07.2018 | Read more
UH-led team created boron-arsenide crystal with high thermal conductivity
Scientists have long known that diamond is the best material for conducting heat, but it has drawbacks: It is costly and is an electrical insulator; when...06.07.2018 | Read more
Most naturally occurring materials have a disordered atomic structure that interferes with the propagation of both sound and electromagnetic waves. When the waves come into contact with these materials, they bounce around and disperse - and their energy dissipates according to a highly complex interference pattern, diminishing in intensity. That means it's virtually impossible to transmit data or energy intact across wave-scattering media and fully leverage the potential of wave technology.
For an example, you need look no further than your smartphone - the geolocation function works less well inside buildings where radiofrequency waves scatter in...03.07.2018 | Read more
A new manufacturing technique uses a process similar to newspaper printing to form smoother and more flexible metals for making ultrafast electronic devices.
The low-cost process, developed by Purdue University researchers, combines tools already used in industry for manufacturing metals on a large scale, but uses...
For the first time ever, scientists have determined the cosmic origin of highest-energy neutrinos. A research group led by IceCube scientist Elisa Resconi, spokesperson of the Collaborative Research Center SFB1258 at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), provides an important piece of evidence that the particles detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole originate from a galaxy four billion light-years away from Earth.
To rule out other origins with certainty, the team led by neutrino physicist Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich and multi-wavelength...
For the first time a team of researchers have discovered two different phases of magnetic skyrmions in a single material. Physicists of the Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne can now better study and understand the properties of these magnetic structures, which are important for both basic research and applications.
Whirlpools are an everyday experience in a bath tub: When the water is drained a circular vortex is formed. Typically, such whirls are rather stable. Similar...
Physicists working with Roland Wester at the University of Innsbruck have investigated if and how chemical reactions can be influenced by targeted vibrational excitation of the reactants. They were able to demonstrate that excitation with a laser beam does not affect the efficiency of a chemical exchange reaction and that the excited molecular group acts only as a spectator in the reaction.
A frequently used reaction in organic chemistry is nucleophilic substitution. It plays, for example, an important role in in the synthesis of new chemical...
Optical spectroscopy allows investigating the energy structure and dynamic properties of complex quantum systems. Researchers from the University of Würzburg present two new approaches of coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy.
"Put an excitation into the system and observe how it evolves." According to physicist Professor Tobias Brixner, this is the credo of optical spectroscopy....
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