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Materials sciences - an interdisciplinary research field

Materials sciences involves the research, development, characterization, manufacture and processing of materials.

Materials sciences- the basis

As an interdisciplinary field, materials sciences encompasseschemistry, physics, mineralogyand many other areas of science. As a result, it is also tied closely to copper, iron and steel.

The transition from natural materials such as stone, wood, ivory or leather to the targeted production of materials such as copper, steel or iron

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Copper, steel and iron were produced as early as the Neolithic, roughly around 4,300 B.C. Copper and iron were produced as far back as the New Stone Age, roughly 4,300 B.C. This was then followed by the transition to the Bronze Age. It wasn't until the Iron Age that apart from iron, steel and copper, aluminum was also produced using the Hall-Héroult process. For a long time, materials sciences was interested almost exclusively in metals such as iron, copper and steel. However, this has changed with the rediscovery of concrete. While the first, mass-produced plastic materials eventually attracted the interest of the broad public, materials sciences continues to carry out research into iron, copper and steel.

The first metals and the ancient times

Copper, steel and iron were the first metals that mankind became familiar with as it evolved. Copper is very easy to process. As a result, copper was already being used 10,000 years ago by the oldest known cultures 10,000. The era of large-scale copper use (between 3,000 and 5,000 B.C.) is referred to as the Copper Age. The devotees of alchemy associate copper with Venus, the symbol of femininity. The first mirrors were even made from copper. The Roman Empire was the largest producer of copper prior to the Industrial Age. Copper remains an extremely popular material.

Steel - stable and dependable

Mankind has acquired long years of practical experience with steel. Steel is a preferred material in engineering because of its durability, excellent corrosion properties and suitability for welding. It is significantly more stable than copper. The European steel registry lists more than 2,300 types of steel. Coal and steel served as the pillars of heavy industry over a long period of time and were thus the foundations of political power. Steel is defined as an iron-carbon alloy with less than 2.06 percent carbon content. Steel, or iron, has a density of 7.85-7.87 g/cm3. Steel melts at a temperature that can be as high as 1,536°C and therefore withstands much higher temperatures than copper.Steel was first produced around 1,000 B.C., much later than copper. In an ecological sense, steel is a sustainable material because it can be continuously reused with minimal quality loss .

Iron - from decoration to general utility

The use of iron was first recorded around 4,000 B.C. in Egypt. It was a solid iron used for decorations and for making spear tips. It was more suitable for these purposes than steel or copper. Smelted iron appeared later in Mesopotamia and Egypt, but it was only intended for ceremonial purposes. Perhaps iron came about as a byproduct of bronze production. After the Hethiter developed a method to produce iron, cultures became increasingly reliant on iron between 1,600 and 1,200 B.C. Iron is thought to be a major element of the earth's core, along with nickel. Iron is produced by reducing iron ore through a chemical reaction with carbon. In contrast to steel or copper, iron is produced in blast furnaces.

Materials Sciences

Materials management deals with the research, development, manufacturing and processing of raw and industrial materials. Key aspects here are biological and medical issues, which play an increasingly important role in this field.

innovations-report offers in-depth articles related to the development and application of materials and the structure and properties of new materials.

Latest News:

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KIST researchers develop high-capacity EV battery materials that double driving range

Everyday materials and simple process used to develop new battery anode materials! Cost-effectiveness and simplicity of process and excellent properties of materials enable mass-production and commercialization

Dr. Hun-Gi Jung and his research team at the Center for Energy Storage Research of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST, President Lee Byung...

24.02.2020 | nachricht Read more

OrganoPor: Bio-Based Boards for A Thermal Insulation Composite System

Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF developed a novel, bio-based facade insulating material during a two-year project. It can be competitive in manufacturing, processing and offer the properties needed for market-leading polystyrene insulation boards. Since OrganoPor also offers a competitive price, it has an opportunity to conquer the market. Fraunhofer LBF will present more about the new insulating material at the JEC World Trade Fair in Paris, from March 3 to 5, 2020, in Hall 6, Booth J 28 of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft.

Polystyrene foam boards (PS) are the most common insulation material, used in more than 90% of all thermal insulation composite systems (TICS). There have been...

21.02.2020 | nachricht Read more

Freiburg researcher investigate the origins of surface texture

Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.

Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...

17.02.2020 | nachricht Read more

Understanding Metal Ion Release from Hip Implants

Scientists of the Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung publish their recent findings about material degradation of hip implants

1.8 million hip replacement surgeries were performed in developed countries in 2015. Due to lifestyle choices and a higher life expectancy, it is estimated...

17.02.2020 | nachricht Read more

New material has highest electron mobility among known layered magnetic materials

Properties make it promising candidate for new areas like magnetic twistronic devices and spintronics, as well as advances in data storage and device design

All the elements are there to begin with, so to speak; it's just a matter of figuring out what they are capable of - alone or together. For Leslie Schoop's...

13.02.2020 | nachricht Read more

Graphene forms under microscope's eye

Graphene forms under microscope's eye Rice, Tennessee labs shrink laser-induced graphene for flexible electronics

You don't need a big laser to make laser-induced graphene (LIG). Scientists at Rice University, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UT Knoxville) and Oak...

13.02.2020 | nachricht Read more

New simulation-experiment combination allows deeper insights into ultrafast light-induced processes

Researchers from Graz University of Technology and the University of Vienna are demonstrating for the first time how the energy flow between strongly interacting molecular states can be better described.

Since the 1990s, femtochemistry has been researching ultrafast processes at the molecular level. In the last few years, the research group Femtosecond Dynamics...

13.02.2020 | nachricht Read more

Superior 'bio-ink' for 3D printing pioneered

Rutgers researchers are developing materials to help grow human tissues

Rutgers biomedical engineers have developed a "bio-ink" for 3D printed materials that could serve as scaffolds for growing human tissues to repair or replace...

11.02.2020 | nachricht Read more

New threads: Nanowires made of tellurium and nanotubes hold promise for wearable tech

Wearable tech and electronic cloth may be the way of the future, but to get there the wiring needs to be strong, flexible and efficient.

Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT), studied by physicists at Michigan Technological University, encase tellurium atomic chains like a straw, which could be...

11.02.2020 | nachricht Read more

Kick-off for European battery research project SeNSE

On Monday, February 10, 2020, the European battery research project SeNSE was officially launched. Over the next four years, five research institutes and six industrial companies from seven European countries will work together to find solutions for the next generation of lithium-ion batteries. Also on board as a partner is the Swedish company Northvolt, which intends to set up two large-scale production facilities (gigafactories) for vehicle batteries in Europe in the next few years. The research project is coordinated by Empa researcher Corsin Battaglia and his team. The EU is supporting SeNSE with 10 million euros.

The demand for batteries for electric cars will increase dramatically in the next few years. At present, more than 90 percent of these batteries come from Asia.

10.02.2020 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: High-pressure scientists in Bayreuth discover promising material for information technology

Researchers at the University of Bayreuth have discovered an unusual material: When cooled down to two degrees Celsius, its crystal structure and electronic properties change abruptly and significantly. In this new state, the distances between iron atoms can be tailored with the help of light beams. This opens up intriguing possibilities for application in the field of information technology. The scientists have presented their discovery in the journal "Angewandte Chemie - International Edition". The new findings are the result of close cooperation with partnering facilities in Augsburg, Dresden, Hamburg, and Moscow.

The material is an unusual form of iron oxide with the formula Fe₅O₆. The researchers produced it at a pressure of 15 gigapascals in a high-pressure laboratory...

Im Focus: From China to the South Pole: Joining forces to solve the neutrino mass puzzle

Study by Mainz physicists indicates that the next generation of neutrino experiments may well find the answer to one of the most pressing issues in neutrino physics

Among the most exciting challenges in modern physics is the identification of the neutrino mass ordering. Physicists from the Cluster of Excellence PRISMA+ at...

Im Focus: Therapies without drugs

Fraunhofer researchers are investigating the potential of microimplants to stimulate nerve cells and treat chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, or Parkinson’s disease. Find out what makes this form of treatment so appealing and which challenges the researchers still have to master.

A study by the Robert Koch Institute has found that one in four women will suffer from weak bladders at some point in their lives. Treatments of this condition...

Im Focus: A step towards controlling spin-dependent petahertz electronics by material defects

The operational speed of semiconductors in various electronic and optoelectronic devices is limited to several gigahertz (a billion oscillations per second). This constrains the upper limit of the operational speed of computing. Now researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg, Germany, and the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay have explained how these processes can be sped up through the use of light waves and defected solid materials.

Light waves perform several hundred trillion oscillations per second. Hence, it is natural to envision employing light oscillations to drive the electronic...

Im Focus: Freiburg researcher investigate the origins of surface texture

Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.

Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

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