Materials sciences involves the research, development, characterization, manufacture and processing of materials.
Copper, steel and iron were produced as early as the Neolithic, roughly around 4,300 B.C. Copper and iron were produced as far back as the New Stone Age, roughly 4,300 B.C. This was then followed by the transition to the Bronze Age. It wasn't until the Iron Age that apart from iron, steel and copper, aluminum was also produced using the Hall-Héroult process. For a long time, materials sciences was interested almost exclusively in metals such as iron, copper and steel. However, this has changed with the rediscovery of concrete. While the first, mass-produced plastic materials eventually attracted the interest of the broad public, materials sciences continues to carry out research into iron, copper and steel.
Copper, steel and iron were the first metals that mankind became familiar with as it evolved. Copper is very easy to process. As a result, copper was already being used 10,000 years ago by the oldest known cultures 10,000. The era of large-scale copper use (between 3,000 and 5,000 B.C.) is referred to as the Copper Age. The devotees of alchemy associate copper with Venus, the symbol of femininity. The first mirrors were even made from copper. The Roman Empire was the largest producer of copper prior to the Industrial Age. Copper remains an extremely popular material.
Mankind has acquired long years of practical experience with steel. Steel is a preferred material in engineering because of its durability, excellent corrosion properties and suitability for welding. It is significantly more stable than copper. The European steel registry lists more than 2,300 types of steel. Coal and steel served as the pillars of heavy industry over a long period of time and were thus the foundations of political power. Steel is defined as an iron-carbon alloy with less than 2.06 percent carbon content. Steel, or iron, has a density of 7.85-7.87 g/cm3. Steel melts at a temperature that can be as high as 1,536°C and therefore withstands much higher temperatures than copper.Steel was first produced around 1,000 B.C., much later than copper. In an ecological sense, steel is a sustainable material because it can be continuously reused with minimal quality loss .
The use of iron was first recorded around 4,000 B.C. in Egypt. It was a solid iron used for decorations and for making spear tips. It was more suitable for these purposes than steel or copper. Smelted iron appeared later in Mesopotamia and Egypt, but it was only intended for ceremonial purposes. Perhaps iron came about as a byproduct of bronze production. After the Hethiter developed a method to produce iron, cultures became increasingly reliant on iron between 1,600 and 1,200 B.C. Iron is thought to be a major element of the earth's core, along with nickel. Iron is produced by reducing iron ore through a chemical reaction with carbon. In contrast to steel or copper, iron is produced in blast furnaces.
Materials management deals with the research, development, manufacturing and processing of raw and industrial materials. Key aspects here are biological and medical issues, which play an increasingly important role in this field.
innovations-report offers in-depth articles related to the development and application of materials and the structure and properties of new materials.
In a paper published in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, researchers summarize recent advances in the controlled synthesis and application of luminescent metal nanoclusters, including potential uses in sensors, bioimaging, and energy harvesting and conversion.
Luminescent metal nanoclusters are a new class of materials consisting of several, to tens of, metal atoms. These materials not only provide the missing link...07.03.2014 | Read more
University of Utah engineers control conductivity with inkjet printer
Using an inexpensive inkjet printer, University of Utah electrical engineers produced microscopic structures that use light in metals to carry information....07.03.2014 | Read more
In collaboration with industrial partners, the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM in Bremen has developed a new quality assurance method for monitoring the surfaces of fiber reinforced plastics prior to adhesive bonding. Following successful technology transfer, this innovative method will be demonstrated at JEC Europe 2014 in Paris from 11-13 March. The new Bondinspect® method will be presented at the fair by Automation W+R GmbH (Stand N79, Pavillon 7/39).
Lightweight aircraft and cars are designed using components made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP).06.03.2014 | Read more
A new material could open the door to a new kind of electronics: researchers at the Vienna University of Technology have created a stable two-dimensional electron gas in strontium titanate
Usually, microelectronic devices are made of silicon or similar semiconductors. Recently, the electronic properties of metal oxides have become quite...04.03.2014 | Read more
Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are revealing the mysteries of new materials using ultra-fast laser spectroscopy, similar to high-speed photography where many quick images reveal subtle movements and changes inside the materials. Seeing these dynamics is one emerging strategy to better understanding how new materials work, so that we can use them to enable new energy technologies.
Physicist Jigang Wang and his colleagues recently used ultra-fast laser spectroscopy to examine and explain the mysterious electronic properties of iron-based...03.03.2014 | Read more
Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) allow reducing the weight of aircraft and automobiles without losing stiffness, dynamic stability or strength.
However, this is valid for defect-free material only. The Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS develops eddy current based diagnosis...26.02.2014 | Read more
“Mottronics” is a term seemingly destined to become familiar to aficionados of electronic gadgets. Named for the Nobel laureate Nevill Francis Mott,...24.02.2014 | Read more
Magnetic materials that enhance the magnetotransport property and for the high-density/low-power consumption magnetic memory24.02.2014 | Read more
The process, more than three years in the making and outlined in the December 2013 edition of Nature Communications, has resulted in the creation of more than...24.02.2014 | Read more
At the European Congress of Radiology (ECR) in Vienna (March 6 – 10, 2014) Siemens Healthcare will premiere its latest 16-slice CT scanner for the entry-level...
Maximize mileage, safety, or operating life? Driving behavior behind the wheel has a big influence on the vehicle. Fraunhofer researchers have developed a driving simulator designed to make the „human factor“ more calculable for vehicle engineers.
Simulations are an important development tool in the automobile and utility vehicle industries – they enable engineers to see into the future. The properties...
Bringing laser-based innovations to the market more quickly and reliably is the aim of the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the 37 partners in the EU project LASHARE.
In a cross-cutting subproject lead by the LZH assessment criteria for new technologies shall be determined. In the future, these criteria shall help to...
A team of researchers from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS) in Japan has identified unexpected dynamic properties of a type of light wave called evanescent waves. These surprising findings contrast sharply with previous knowledge about light and photons.
The study carried out in the Quantum Condensed Matter Research Group (CEMS, RIKEN, Japan) led by Dr. Franco Nori is published today in the journal Nature...
The bacterium Staphylococcus Aureus (S. aureus) is a common source of infections that occur after surgeries involving prosthetic joints and artificial heart...
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07.03.2014 | Materials Sciences
07.03.2014 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
07.03.2014 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation