Materials sciences involves the research, development, characterization, manufacture and processing of materials.
Copper, steel and iron were produced as early as the Neolithic, roughly around 4,300 B.C. Copper and iron were produced as far back as the New Stone Age, roughly 4,300 B.C. This was then followed by the transition to the Bronze Age. It wasn't until the Iron Age that apart from iron, steel and copper, aluminum was also produced using the Hall-Héroult process. For a long time, materials sciences was interested almost exclusively in metals such as iron, copper and steel. However, this has changed with the rediscovery of concrete. While the first, mass-produced plastic materials eventually attracted the interest of the broad public, materials sciences continues to carry out research into iron, copper and steel.
Copper, steel and iron were the first metals that mankind became familiar with as it evolved. Copper is very easy to process. As a result, copper was already being used 10,000 years ago by the oldest known cultures 10,000. The era of large-scale copper use (between 3,000 and 5,000 B.C.) is referred to as the Copper Age. The devotees of alchemy associate copper with Venus, the symbol of femininity. The first mirrors were even made from copper. The Roman Empire was the largest producer of copper prior to the Industrial Age. Copper remains an extremely popular material.
Mankind has acquired long years of practical experience with steel. Steel is a preferred material in engineering because of its durability, excellent corrosion properties and suitability for welding. It is significantly more stable than copper. The European steel registry lists more than 2,300 types of steel. Coal and steel served as the pillars of heavy industry over a long period of time and were thus the foundations of political power. Steel is defined as an iron-carbon alloy with less than 2.06 percent carbon content. Steel, or iron, has a density of 7.85-7.87 g/cm3. Steel melts at a temperature that can be as high as 1,536°C and therefore withstands much higher temperatures than copper.Steel was first produced around 1,000 B.C., much later than copper. In an ecological sense, steel is a sustainable material because it can be continuously reused with minimal quality loss .
The use of iron was first recorded around 4,000 B.C. in Egypt. It was a solid iron used for decorations and for making spear tips. It was more suitable for these purposes than steel or copper. Smelted iron appeared later in Mesopotamia and Egypt, but it was only intended for ceremonial purposes. Perhaps iron came about as a byproduct of bronze production. After the Hethiter developed a method to produce iron, cultures became increasingly reliant on iron between 1,600 and 1,200 B.C. Iron is thought to be a major element of the earth's core, along with nickel. Iron is produced by reducing iron ore through a chemical reaction with carbon. In contrast to steel or copper, iron is produced in blast furnaces.
Materials management deals with the research, development, manufacturing and processing of raw and industrial materials. Key aspects here are biological and medical issues, which play an increasingly important role in this field.
innovations-report offers in-depth articles related to the development and application of materials and the structure and properties of new materials.
New measurements of atomic-scale magnetic behavior in iron-based superconductors by researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Vanderbilt University are challenging conventional wisdom about superconductivity and magnetism.
The study published in Advanced Materials provides experimental evidence that local magnetic fluctuations can influence the performance of iron-based...22.08.2014 | Read more
Team invents non-metallic metamaterial that enables them to 'compress' and contain light
The invention of fibre optics revolutionized the way we share information, allowing us to transmit data at volumes and speeds we'd only previously dreamed of.20.08.2014 | Read more
Coated tissue scaffolds help the body grow new bone to repair injuries or congenital defects.
MIT chemical engineers have devised a new implantable tissue scaffold coated with bone growth factors that are released slowly over a few weeks. When applied...20.08.2014 | Read more
Head-to-head charge configuration explains major performance issues in ferroelectrics
Electronic devices with unprecedented efficiency and data storage may someday run on ferroelectrics—remarkable materials that use built-in electric...20.08.2014 | Read more
A team of researchers at Michigan State University has developed a new type of solar concentrator that when placed over a window creates solar energy while allowing people to actually see through the window.
It is called a transparent luminescent solar concentrator and can be used on buildings, cell phones and any other device that has a clear surface.20.08.2014 | Read more
Researchers at University of Tsukuba and National Institute for Materials Science use charge formation efficiency to screen materials for future devices
Organic photovoltaic cells -- a type of solar cell that uses polymeric materials to capture sunlight -- show tremendous promise as energy conversion devices,...19.08.2014 | Read more
Beyond the invisibility cloak, the work could have applications for military, industry
It could be a fun party trick – put your cell phone down on a table and watch it fade into the woodwork – or part of a lifesaving technology used by industry...19.08.2014 | Read more
Universiti Teknologi MARA researchers are investigating the properties of lemongrass fibers to help prevent fluid circulation problems while drilling for oil and gas.
In the oil and gas industry, drilling mud is used to (1) to suspend cuttings to prevent it sagging at the drill bit during shutdown, (2) to transport it to the...18.08.2014 | Read more
UMass Amherst team invents a way to create versatile, water-soluble nano-modules
A team of materials chemists, polymer scientists, device physicists and others at the University of Massachusetts Amherst today report a breakthrough technique...15.08.2014 | Read more
Transparent polymeric films with near-uniform, continuous nanoprotrusions show high water pinning abilities
A*STAR researchers have used nanoimprinting methods to make patterned polymeric films with surface topography inspired by that of a rose petal, producing a...14.08.2014 | Read more
Johns Hopkins stem cell biologists have found a way to reprogram a patient’s skin cells into cells that mimic and display many biological features of a rare...
A disturbance in the local magnetic order of a solid body can propagate across a material just like a wave. This wave is named spin wave and its quanta are known as magnons.
Physicists from the University of Kaiserslautern propose the usage of magnons to carry and process information instead of electrons as it is done in...
In case of an inflammation the body releases substances that increase the immune defense. During chronic inflammation, this immune response gets out of control and can induce organ damage.
A research group from the Department of Biomedicine at the University and the University Children’s Hospital of Basel now discovered that innate lymphoid cells...
Prior to this work, ideal light sources (such as perfect lasers) were thought to emit as much light as excited in them via pumping.
Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) have found between Greenland and Spitsbergen the scours left...
21.08.2014 | Event News
20.08.2014 | Event News
13.08.2014 | Event News
22.08.2014 | Physics and Astronomy
22.08.2014 | Life Sciences
22.08.2014 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation