Now physicists need not fully control the growth of laser crystals, because the crystals grow themselves. Professor Nikolay Ledentsov and his team at the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute have learned how to provide special conditions in which crystals can grow defectless.
Growing crystals with enhanced characteristics is possible on the basis of the effect of quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny islet of one material lost in the monocrystal of the other material. For a long time the scientists thought that it is impossible to grow a perfect crystal with "raisins" of other material inside. However, researchers at the laboratory of Zhores Alferov have proved that the grown crystals are good for lasers.
Technology of growing is very important. Usually heterostructural materials, e.g. consisted of gallium arsenid and indium arsenid, are made by placing a layer by layer. Now the researchers can do without this laborious procedure. According to professor Ledentsov it is enough to choose right conditions: temperature, deposition rates, ratios between atom flows etc. In this case a perfect material will grow and the "raisins" will arrange in a strict order. Having known regularities of the growth, it is possible to make beads, chains, "saucers", small or big islands of quantum dots etc.
Tatiana Pitchugina | Informnauka
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Researchers from the Department of Atomically Resolved Dynamics of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg, the University of Potsdam (both in Germany) and the University of Toronto (Canada) have pieced together a detailed time-lapse movie revealing all the major steps during the catalytic cycle of an enzyme. Surprisingly, the communication between the protein units is accomplished via a water-network akin to a string telephone. This communication is aligned with a ‘breathing’ motion, that is the expansion and contraction of the protein.
This time-lapse sequence of structures reveals dynamic motions as a fundamental element in the molecular foundations of biology.
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