Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

NYU Physicists Devise Method for Building Artificial Tissue

29.05.2012
New York University physicists have developed a method that models biological cell-to-cell adhesion that could also have industrial applications.

This system, created in the laboratory of Jasna Brujiæ, an assistant professor in NYU’s Department of Physics and part of its Center for Soft Matter Research, is an oil-in-water solution whose surface properties reproduce those found on biological cells.

Specifically, adhesion between compressed oil droplets mimics the mechanical properties of tissues and opens the path to numerous practical applications, ranging from biocompatible cosmetics to artificial tissue engineering.

Their method is described in the journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Previously, Brujiæ’s laboratory has determined how spheres pack and devised methods for manipulating the packing process. In this PNAS study, Brujiæ and her research team sought to create a method that would address the role of packing in tissues from the point of view of how mechanical forces affect protein-protein adhesion between cells.

In biology, cell-to-cell adhesion is crucial to the integrity of tissue structure—cells must come together and stick in order to ensure tissue cohesion. However, the daunting complexity of biological systems has long prevented their description using general theoretical concepts taken from the physical sciences. For this reason, the research team designed an original biomimetic solution, or emulsion, that reproduces the main features of cell-to-cell adhesion in tissues.

Emulsions form the basis for a range of consumer products, including butter, ice cream, and milk. In addition, the emulsion in the PNAS study is tuned to match the attractive and repulsive interactions that govern adhesion between cells. The experimental conditions reveal the circumstances under which pushing forces are necessary to create adhesion.

By varying the amount of force by which the droplets of oil were compressed by centrifugation and the amount of salt added to this solution, the NYU team was able to isolate the optimal conditions for cell-to-cell adhesion. Screening electrostatic charges by the addition of salt and compressing the droplets by force enhances protein-protein interactions on the droplet surfaces. This leads to adhesion between contacting droplets covering all the interfaces, just as in the case of biological tissues.

Their results, which matched the researchers’ theoretical modeling of the process, offer a method for manipulating force and pressure in order to bind emulsions. This serves as a starting point for enriching a range of consumer products, by reconfiguring their molecular make-up to enhance consistency and function, and for improving pharmaceuticals, by bolstering the delivery of therapeutic molecules to the blood stream.

The study’s other authors were Lea-Laetitia Pontani, a postdoctoral research scientist, and Ivane Jorjadze, a graduate student, both from NYU’s Department of Physics and the Center for Soft Matter Research, as well as Virgile Viasnoff, an Associate Professor at the National University of Singapore and the French research institute, CNRS/ESPCI.

For more on the Brujiæ Laboratory, go to http://www.physics.nyu.edu/~jb2929/index.html; for more on the Center for Soft Matter Research, go to http://csmr.as.nyu.edu/page/home.

The research was performed in the NYU Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC), which is supported by the National Science Foundation.

James Devitt | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.nyu.edu

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Journey to the center of Mars
20.02.2020 | Tohoku University

nachricht Laser writing enables practical flat optics and data storage in glass
20.02.2020 | Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A step towards controlling spin-dependent petahertz electronics by material defects

The operational speed of semiconductors in various electronic and optoelectronic devices is limited to several gigahertz (a billion oscillations per second). This constrains the upper limit of the operational speed of computing. Now researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg, Germany, and the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay have explained how these processes can be sped up through the use of light waves and defected solid materials.

Light waves perform several hundred trillion oscillations per second. Hence, it is natural to envision employing light oscillations to drive the electronic...

Im Focus: Freiburg researcher investigate the origins of surface texture

Most natural and artificial surfaces are rough: metals and even glasses that appear smooth to the naked eye can look like jagged mountain ranges under the microscope. There is currently no uniform theory about the origin of this roughness despite it being observed on all scales, from the atomic to the tectonic. Scientists suspect that the rough surface is formed by irreversible plastic deformation that occurs in many processes of mechanical machining of components such as milling.

Prof. Dr. Lars Pastewka from the Simulation group at the Department of Microsystems Engineering at the University of Freiburg and his team have simulated such...

Im Focus: Skyrmions like it hot: Spin structures are controllable even at high temperatures

Investigation of the temperature dependence of the skyrmion Hall effect reveals further insights into possible new data storage devices

The joint research project of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) that had previously demonstrated...

Im Focus: Making the internet more energy efficient through systemic optimization

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive. The project has yielded several scientific articles, in publications including Nature Communications.

Streaming films and music, scrolling through social media, and using cloud-based storage services are everyday activities now.

Im Focus: New synthesis methods enhance 3D chemical space for drug discovery

After helping develop a new approach for organic synthesis -- carbon-hydrogen functionalization -- scientists at Emory University are now showing how this approach may apply to drug discovery. Nature Catalysis published their most recent work -- a streamlined process for making a three-dimensional scaffold of keen interest to the pharmaceutical industry.

"Our tools open up whole new chemical space for potential drug targets," says Huw Davies, Emory professor of organic chemistry and senior author of the paper.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

70th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Around 70 Laureates set to meet with young scientists from approx. 100 countries

12.02.2020 | Event News

11th Advanced Battery Power Conference, March 24-25, 2020 in Münster/Germany

16.01.2020 | Event News

Laser Colloquium Hydrogen LKH2: fast and reliable fuel cell manufacturing

15.01.2020 | Event News

 
Latest News

Journey to the center of Mars

20.02.2020 | Physics and Astronomy

Laser writing enables practical flat optics and data storage in glass

20.02.2020 | Physics and Astronomy

New graphene-based metasurface capable of independent amplitude and phase control of light

20.02.2020 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>