Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Access control for proteins


The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is the central hub for the transport of proteins within and out of cells. As protein transport is essential for cell biology, the cell closely regulates which proteins are packaged and transported in vesicles. However, the process by which non-signal-carrying proteins are packaged is still poorly understood. A study carried out by the Research Group led by Julia von Blume at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried in collaboration with Christopher Burd’s Research Group at Yale University has now shown that the sorting of proteins into vesicles and lipid synthesis at the TGN are molecularly coupled. The study was published in Developmental Cell.

To travel by public transport, passengers must present a valid ticket. Often, tickets are checked before departure, so that only passengers with a ticket are allowed to board.

Artistic representation of secretory vesicle formation at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Hot-air balloons represent secretory vesicles containing secretory cargo proteins that bud from the TGN.

© Mai Ly Tran (submitted to Developmental Cell)

A key transport role in cells of higher organisms is played by the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The TGN delivers proteins to their destination in the cell or shuttles them out of the cell. With this means of transport as well, a form of access control is carried out, so that only the correct proteins are packaged into transport vesicles – small membrane-enclosed sacs.

Admission control in the cellular freight system

A group of proteins that are anchored in the membrane are known to display a signal motif that allows them access to the vesicles. However, the TGN also transports proteins which do not display such a “ticket”, and it is unclear how their transport is controlled. Many proteins occur in high concentrations or even in pure form in vesicles, indicating that they are not just stowaways or randomly selected cargo.

To investigate how such ticketless proteins gain access to transport vesicles, the scientists took advantage of the fact that the TGN not only transports proteins but also lipids. Among them is a lipid called sphingomyelin, which is produced in the TGN and then transported via vesicles into the cell membrane. In the past, Christopher Burd’s group at Yale developed a method to detect and track sphingomyelin-containing vesicles. In this way, the researchers were able to show that a sphingomyelin-dependent pathway exists by means of which proteins are shuttled out of the cell.

However, it was not known whether sphingomyelin itself is needed for protein packaging. To shed light on this question, the researchers used a proteomic approach in their current study, which involves analysing the entire set of proteins in a cell. “We searched through the passenger lists of all sphingomyelin-containing transport vesicles, as it were.

We discovered that a protein called Cab45 is present in all vesicles,” explains Mehrshad Pakdel, lead author of the study and doctoral student at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry. “However, this was only the case when Cab45 had bound calcium.”

Presorting of the protein freight
In earlier studies, Julia von Blume’s Group at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry had shown that Cab45 can bind secretory proteins, thus increasing their concentration locally.

This could be the step that corresponds to a ticket check: “This ensures that proteins are not packaged arbitrarily, but only those that are meant to be transported. The proteins are presorted, so to speak,” Pakdel explains. Cab45 alone, however, is not sufficient.

A calcium pump and the production of sphingomyelin are also needed. With the help of a by-product, synthesis of the lipid causes the TGN membrane to curve in upon itself and produce transport vesicles.

The researchers were able to show that the activity of the calcium pump in the TGN activates Cab45 and ensures that a protein to be transported accumulates locally. The production of sphingomyelin, which is synthesised in the TGN and occurs in the vesicle membrane, is locally coupled to the two preceding processes.

Thus, all steps – from the “ticket check” of the proteins to the formation of membrane-bound vesicles to the packaging of proteins in the transport system – are interconnected.

“Our study shows that three components are needed to move proteins into their transport vesicles: the sorter Cab45, a calcium pump that activates the sorter and the lipid sphingomyelin. If one of the three components is missing, a backlog of proteins to be transported builds up. Ultimately, however, they are indiscriminately packaged into transport vesicles,” says Julia von Blume, summing up the findings.

She points out that dysfunctions of the Golgi apparatus are associated with a variety of disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases. “It’s therefore all the more important to understand how cells control their freight system and always manage to transport the right proteins to the right destination at the right time.” [CW]

About Julia von Blume
Julia von Blume studied biology at the University of Constance and received her PhD from the University of Ulm in 2006. She performed post-doctoral research at the University of California San Diego, USA and at the Center for Genomic Regulation in Barcelona. In 2012, von Blume became the leader of the independent research group “Molecular Basis of Protein Trafficking” at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried near Munich.

About the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
The Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry (MPIB) belongs to the Max Planck Society, an independent, non-profit research organization dedicated to top-level basic research. As one of the largest Institutes of the Max Planck Society, about 800 employees from 45 nations work here in the field of life sciences. In currently about 35 departments and research groups, the scientists contribute to the newest findings in the areas of biochemistry, cell biology, structural biology, biophysics and molecular science. The MPIB in Munich-Martinsried is part of the local life-science-campus in close proximity to the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, a Helmholtz Center, the Gene-Center, several bio-medical faculties of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Innovation and Founding Center Biotechnology (IZB).

Wissenschaftliche Ansprechpartner:

Dr. Julia von Blume
Molecular Basis of Protein Trafficking
Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
Am Klopferspitz 18
82152 Martinsried/Munich


Y. Deng*, M. Pakdel*, B. Blank, E.L. Sundberg, C.G. Burd, J. von Blume: Activity of the SPC1 calcium pump couples sphingomyelin synthesis to sorting of secretory proteins in the trans-Golgi network. Developmental Cell, November 2018 (*equal contributions)

Dr. Christiane Menzfeld | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie

Further reports about: Biochemie Max-Planck-Institut calcium pump proteins pump sphingomyelin synthesis vesicles

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Cell Division at High Speed
19.06.2019 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Monitoring biodiversity with sound: how machines can enrich our knowledge
18.06.2019 | Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Successfully Tested in Praxis: Bidirectional Sensor Technology Optimizes Laser Material Deposition

The quality of additively manufactured components depends not only on the manufacturing process, but also on the inline process control. The process control ensures a reliable coating process because it detects deviations from the target geometry immediately. At LASER World of PHOTONICS 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be demonstrating how well bi-directional sensor technology can already be used for Laser Material Deposition (LMD) in combination with commercial optics at booth A2.431.

Fraunhofer ILT has been developing optical sensor technology specifically for production measurement technology for around 10 years. In particular, its »bd-1«...

Im Focus: The hidden structure of the periodic system

The well-known representation of chemical elements is just one example of how objects can be arranged and classified

The periodic table of elements that most chemistry books depict is only one special case. This tabular overview of the chemical elements, which goes back to...

Im Focus: MPSD team discovers light-induced ferroelectricity in strontium titanate

Light can be used not only to measure materials’ properties, but also to change them. Especially interesting are those cases in which the function of a material can be modified, such as its ability to conduct electricity or to store information in its magnetic state. A team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg used terahertz frequency light pulses to transform a non-ferroelectric material into a ferroelectric one.

Ferroelectricity is a state in which the constituent lattice “looks” in one specific direction, forming a macroscopic electrical polarisation. The ability to...

Im Focus: Determining the Earth’s gravity field more accurately than ever before

Researchers at TU Graz calculate the most accurate gravity field determination of the Earth using 1.16 billion satellite measurements. This yields valuable knowledge for climate research.

The Earth’s gravity fluctuates from place to place. Geodesists use this phenomenon to observe geodynamic and climatological processes. Using...

Im Focus: Tube anemone has the largest animal mitochondrial genome ever sequenced

Discovery by Brazilian and US researchers could change the classification of two species, which appear more akin to jellyfish than was thought.

The tube anemone Isarachnanthus nocturnus is only 15 cm long but has the largest mitochondrial genome of any animal sequenced to date, with 80,923 base pairs....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

SEMANTiCS 2019 brings together industry leaders and data scientists in Karlsruhe

29.04.2019 | Event News

Revered mathematicians and computer scientists converge with 200 young researchers in Heidelberg!

17.04.2019 | Event News

First dust conference in the Central Asian part of the earth’s dust belt

15.04.2019 | Event News

Latest News

A new force for optical tweezers awakens

19.06.2019 | Physics and Astronomy

New AI system manages road infrastructure via Google Street View

19.06.2019 | Information Technology

A new manufacturing process for aluminum alloys

19.06.2019 | Materials Sciences

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>