A study by the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country has demonstrated that 15 days' exposure to microplastics affects some freshwater systems
Concern about contamination caused by microplastics is growing; owing to their abundance, ubiquity and persistence over time, microplastics pose a potential risk for organisms and ecosystems.
Yet studies into their distribution in freshwater systems, in both lakes and rivers, and their effects on the organisms in these waters are few and far between, and there is very little information about their potential effect on the functioning of these ecosystems.
In this context, in collaboration with the National Museum of Natural Sciences (CSIC-National Research Council) in Madrid, the UPV/EHU's Stream Ecology research group has studied "the effects of microplastics on freshwater ecosystems and on two of the most important groups of organisms that live in them: amphibians and invertebrates", explained Naiara López-Rojo, researcher in the UPV/EHU group.
To do this they conducted lab experiments in which they replicated the conditions of the rivers and ponds where these animals live, and exposed them to different concentrations of fluorescent microplastics: "Replicas without microplastics (control), at a low, at an intermediate and at a high concentration, while the remaining characteristics were identical (light, temperature, etc.)."
That way the group studied firstly the effect of the microplastics on tadpole survival, food and growth as well as the ingestion and egestion of them. In addition "we analysed whether the microplastics attach themselves to periphyton (set of microscopic organisms that grow on the rocks at the bottom of the river or pond and main source of food for the tadpoles) and whether their productivity changes, because that would demonstrate an alteration in the way freshwater ecosystems function", said the researcher.
Secondly, they examined the effects of the microplastics on the decomposition of the leaf litter (one of the most important processes in river ecosystems) and on the survival and growth of organisms that feed on it (detritivore invertebrates); they also studied the degree of attachment of the microplastics to the leaf litter and degree of ingestion and egestion of the detritivores, thus evaluating the trophic transfer mechanisms of the microplastics.
Combination with other stressors
The results demonstrate that "microplastics cause mortality in detritivores in all their concentrations (in the highest concentration mortality is nine times higher) but their growth is not affected. In the case of tadpoles, we saw that they die in the highest concentration of microplastics; in the other concentrations we did not see any lethality, but we did see a reduction in the growth of the amphibians", added López-Rojo.
The fluorescence studies conducted on the tadpoles indicate, according to the researcher, "a presence of microplastics in the organisms, in their faeces and in the periphyton. And that suggests that microplastics could be significant stressors for amphibians, like other contaminants, climate change, habitat loss, etc. Amphibians could also be a significant transmission channel of freshwater microplastics to terrestrial ecosystems".
In the case of the invertebrates, the tests suggest that the microplastics were also ingested (very likely through the ingestion of particles attached to the leaf litter) and some of them were excreted. The more the concentration of microplastics increased, the less the leaf litter decomposed.
"These results provide fresh evidence of the damaging effects of this contaminant on aquatic insects and on the functioning of river ecosystems, and highlight the need to standardise the methods to be used in future experiments on microplastics to be able to draw comparisons," concluded the researcher in the UPV/EHU's Department of Plant Biology and Ecology.
López-Rojo stresses the need to go on exploring the effect of this kind of contaminant on freshwater ecosystems: "We are seeing that the outcome depends on the type of organism you study, exposure time, etc. More prolonged exposure would need to be studied because in actual fact the plastics persist for much longer than 15 days. It would also be interesting to study the effect of this contaminant together with other types of stressors which both rivers and ponds are subjected to. The reason is that the interaction among various stressors could turn out to be even more harmful."
Matxalen Sotillo | EurekAlert!
Reduced off-odor of plastic recyclates via separate collection of packaging waste
31.03.2020 | Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
Study suggests LEGO bricks could survive in ocean for up to 1,300 years
17.03.2020 | University of Plymouth
Drops of water falling on or sliding over surfaces may leave behind traces of electrical charge, causing the drops to charge themselves. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz have now begun a detailed investigation into this phenomenon that accompanies us in every-day life. They developed a method to quantify the charge generation and additionally created a theoretical model to aid understanding. According to the scientists, the observed effect could be a source of generated power and an important building block for understanding frictional electricity.
Water drops sliding over non-conducting surfaces can be found everywhere in our lives: From the dripping of a coffee machine, to a rinse in the shower, to an...
90 million-year-old forest soil provides unexpected evidence for exceptionally warm climate near the South Pole in the Cretaceous
An international team of researchers led by geoscientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) have now...
The bacteria that cause tuberculosis need iron to survive. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now solved the first detailed structure of the transport protein responsible for the iron supply. When the iron transport into the bacteria is inhibited, the pathogen can no longer grow. This opens novel ways to develop targeted tuberculosis drugs.
One of the most devastating pathogens that lives inside human cells is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacillus that causes tuberculosis. According to the...
An international team with the participation of Prof. Dr. Michael Kues from the Cluster of Excellence PhoenixD at Leibniz University Hannover has developed a new method for generating quantum-entangled photons in a spectral range of light that was previously inaccessible. The discovery can make the encryption of satellite-based communications much more secure in the future.
A 15-member research team from the UK, Germany and Japan has developed a new method for generating and detecting quantum-entangled photons at a wavelength of...
Together with their colleagues from the University of Würzburg, physicists from the group of Professor Alexander Szameit at the University of Rostock have devised a “funnel” for photons. Their discovery was recently published in the renowned journal Science and holds great promise for novel ultra-sensitive detectors as well as innovative applications in telecommunications and information processing.
The quantum-optical properties of light and its interaction with matter has fascinated the Rostock professor Alexander Szameit since College.
02.04.2020 | Event News
26.03.2020 | Event News
23.03.2020 | Event News
03.04.2020 | Materials Sciences
03.04.2020 | Life Sciences
03.04.2020 | Life Sciences