Studies and analyses are vital to progress and innovation and are the only way to empirically verify theories.
Not all fields of science are dependent on empirical studies and analyses to verify a thesis. Mathematics, theology, philosophy and law are examples of fields that revolve within a stand-alone world in which new findings are derived by means of logical operations consisting of axioms, postulates or articles of faith (theology) that need not be proven true or accurate through empirical studies or analyses. Although these subjects are indispensable when it comes to basic research, by themselves they don't yield technical advances.
Empirical scientific approaches are diametrically opposed to these fields however. In this case, new theories are developed based on thought processes, observations and speculation. Ensuring that this knowledge has actual scientific relevance requires that it undergo an empirical evaluation however. Researchers rely on studies and analyses to compare these theses with real observations. New scientific knowledge is considered valid only after empirical studies and analyses show that theory and reality coincide. In the process it is imperative that the studies and analyses always produce the same result under the same experiment structure. Only then it is empirically proven that the result actually behaves in line with the theory.
The validation process for new findings based on studies and analyses as described above is in no way limited to natural and engineering sciences such as physics, biology, chemistry, medicine and health, machine engineering or aero and space engineering. In fields such as the social sciences, studies and analyses are also indispensable for empirically proving the accuracy of assumptions and conclusions. Sociology uses empirical-based statistics, studies and analyses to determine if statements about the migration behavior of specific population groups is accurate for instance. The field of psychology also relies on analyses and studies to empirically validate the assumptions of certain behavior patterns.
Before the Enlightenment changed our way of thinking, universities tended to postulate and speculate more than perform scientific research. Innovations therefore were apt be accidental. Once researchers were convinced that scientific results were only possible through the use of empirical studies and analysis, the groundwork was laid for the rapid advances in science that followed. Empirical studies and analyses range from simple experiments, particularly by measuring, weighing and counting, to extremely complex processes that require an enormous amount of time and money. Determining the validity of scientific theories using empirical assurances is one of the prerequisites for implementing these theories in practice. When a specific fact has been confirmed and documented based on studies and analyses, the assumption is that it will remain a fact in the future under the same premises. Only then does it make sense to develop new technologies based on this knowledge, because this provides sufficient proof of the assumption that they always function in the same manner.
Gregor Mendel's studies and analyses on genetics provided empirical proof of his theories of heredity, which then led to modern plant breeding and the establishment of food security for millions of people. The effectiveness of penicillin, another invaluable innovation for mankind, was empirically proven by Alexander Fleming through medical studies and analyses.
innovations-report maintains a wealth of in-depth studies and analyses from a variety of subject areas including business and finance, medicine and ph
Respiratory droplets from a cough or sneeze travel farther and last longer in humid, cold climates than in hot, dry ones, according to a study on droplet physics by an international team of engineers. The researchers incorporated this understanding of the impact of environmental factors on droplet spread into a new mathematical model that can be used to predict the early spread of respiratory viruses including COVID-19, and the role of respiratory droplets in that spread.
The team developed this new model to better understand the role that droplet clouds play in the spread of respiratory viruses.21.07.2020 | Read more
How high is the risk that aerosol transmission during choral singing could cause infection with the coronavirus? After occurrences of infection among choirs in the USA and Germany, Bavarian Broadcasting carried out a complex series of experiments for its musical ensembles in conjunction with the LMU University Hospital Munich and the Universitätsklinikum Erlangen (FAU). Initial partial results of the as yet unpublished scientific study are now available. In the study, the scientists involved explain the conditions they consider necessary – with regard to distance between the singers and the properties of the room’s indoor climate – for singing to remain a healthy activity during COVID-19.
Susanne Vongries, manager of the BR Chorus, describes the initial situation: ‘After the initial shock of lockdown and once we’d reviewed the restrictive...03.07.2020 | Read more
Why do we age? What exactly is happening in our bodies? And can we do anything about it? Mankind has sought answers to these questions since time immemorial. While the pharmaceutical scientists Alexandra K. Kiemer and Jessica Hoppstädter from Saarland University are not claiming to have solved this ancient problem, they have uncovered processes within our immune system that contribute to ageing. Kiemer and Hoppstädter have shown that low levels of the hormone cortisol and the protein known as GILZ can trigger chronic inflammatory responses in the body. The results have been published in the journal Aging Cell, doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/acel.13156
The phenomenon of human ageing is the result of a complex interaction between numerous factors, with our own immune system playing a critical role. As we get...01.07.2020 | Read more
Our brains construct mental maps of the environment from the experiences of our senses. This allows us to orient ourselves, remember where something happened, and plan where we go next. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig and the Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience in Trondheim have now developed a new computer model that can finely watch the brain as it orients in space and remembers things.
In their recent publication in Nature Communications, they show that newly formed memories affect how we perceive the world around us: the more familiar our...26.06.2020 | Read more
These days, the scramble for space on urban streets manifests in unexpected ways: the Berlin district of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg has now called on the owners of cafés and restaurants to specify "space requirements in stationary parking areas or even on the roadway". The corona crisis and the need to place tables far apart and preferably outside suddenly challenge traffic planning of past decades. How will the road meet all interests? A new study takes a fundamental look at this. It was carried out by the Berlin-based climate research institute MCC (Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change) and the Technical University of Berlin.
The paper has just been published in the renowned journal Transport Reviews. "The special thing about this study is that we first present the conceivable...18.05.2020 | Read more
A worldwide compilation of long-term insect abundance studies shows that the number of land-dwelling insects is in decline. On average, there is a global decrease of 0.92% per year, which translates to approximately 24% over 30 years. At the same time, the number of insects living in freshwater has increased on average by 1.08% each year.
Despite these overall averages, local trends are highly variable. These are the results from the largest study of insect change to date, now published in the...24.04.2020 | Read more
In December, the academic publisher De Gruyter launched its new journal “Open Statistics” with an opening article by TU Dresden mathematician Dr. Björn Böttcher. The article presents the extension of the statistical measure "distance multivariance" developed by Böttcher and his colleagues at TU Dresden.
Distance multivariance is a multivariate dependence measure, which can detect dependencies between an arbitrary number of random vectors each of which can have...07.02.2020 | Read more
Largest-ever study analyzing cells' individual blueprints reveals new patterns in the global distribution and diversity of ocean microbes
A single drop of seawater can contain a wide representation of ocean microbes from around the world - revealing novel insights into the ecology, evolution and...13.12.2019 | Read more
Every tenth couple worldwide is affected by infertility. The reasons for this are manifold, but mostly well researched. Nevertheless, about fifteen percent of cases remain unexplained. A team of biologists at TU Dresden has now gained new insights into the metabolic properties that make up a good sperm cell.
Thanks to the advanced possibilities, in vitro fertilization is part of everyday medical practice. The so-called swim-up method is a sperm purification method...29.11.2019 | Read more
Larger parts of the cerebral cortex than thought process tactile stimuli
An encouraging pat on the back or a soft sweater on the skin - even things that we do not actively explore with the hands, we perceive with our body...27.11.2019 | Read more
Traditional single-cell sequencing methods help to reveal insights about cellular differences and functions - but they do this with static snapshots only...
“Core-shell” clusters pave the way for new efficient nanomaterials that make catalysts, magnetic and laser sensors or measuring devices for detecting electromagnetic radiation more efficient.
Whether in innovative high-tech materials, more powerful computer chips, pharmaceuticals or in the field of renewable energies, nanoparticles – smallest...
An international research team with Prof. Cornelia Denz from the Institute of Applied Physics at the University of Münster develop for the first time light fields using caustics that do not change during propagation. With the new method, the physicists cleverly exploit light structures that can be seen in rainbows or when light is transmitted through drinking glasses.
Modern applications as high resolution microsopy or micro- or nanoscale material processing require customized laser beams that do not change during...
Although no life has been detected on the Martian surface, a new study from astrophysicist and research scientist at the Center for Space Science at NYU Abu...
New approach creates synthetic layered magnets with unprecedented level of control over their magnetic properties
The magnetic properties of a chromium halide can be tuned by manipulating the non-magnetic atoms in the material, a team, led by Boston College researchers,...
23.07.2020 | Event News
21.07.2020 | Event News
07.07.2020 | Event News
04.08.2020 | Physics and Astronomy
04.08.2020 | Physics and Astronomy
04.08.2020 | Physics and Astronomy