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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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Copper oxide photocathodes: laser experiment reveals location of efficiency loss

Copper oxide (Cu2O) is a very promising candidate for future solar energy conversion: as a photocathode, the copper oxide (a semiconductor) might be able to use sunlight to electrolytically split water and thus generate hydrogen, a fuel that can chemically store the energy of sunlight.

Copper oxide has a band gap of 2 electron volts, which matches up very well with the energy spectrum of sunlight. Perfect copper oxide crystals should...

10.05.2019 | nachricht Read more

NIST research sparks new insights on laser welding

Researchers discuss ambitious project to understand the basic principles of laser welding better than ever before

On its surface, the work is deceptively simple: Shoot a high-power laser beam onto a piece of metal for a fraction of a second and see what happens. But...

02.05.2019 | nachricht Read more

USP Lasers Conquer Macroprocessing

Ultrashort pulse (USP) lasers have become firmly established in science and micromachining. At this year's “UKP-Workshop: Ultrafast Laser Technology” in Aachen, a new trend has emerged: Macroprocessing. Since multi-100-watt USP lasers up into the kW range have become available, the industry is looking at them with great interest for large-area applications. For this purpose, the institute is developing the complete process chain right through to fully digitized processes.

The UKP-Workshop has grown once again: More than 170 participants from 14 countries came to Aachen this year to discuss the latest trends in the development of...

25.04.2019 | nachricht Read more

NRL develops laser processing method to increase efficiency of optoelectronic devices

Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) discovered a new method to passivate defects in next generation optical materials to improve optical quality and enable the miniaturization of light emitting diodes and other optical elements.

"From a chemistry standpoint, we have discovered a new photocatalytic reaction using laser light and water molecules, which is new and exciting," said Saujan...

16.04.2019 | nachricht Read more

Hollow structures in 3D

Freiburg researchers succeed in printing channel structures in glass

Quartz glass is the preferred material for applications that require long-term use because of its high chemical and mechanical stability and excellent optical...

29.03.2019 | nachricht Read more

Design treatment of advanced metals producing better sculpting

New process targets improvements for defense, vehicles and health products

Most people may not realize it but they encounter products made with exotic or advanced metals every day.

08.03.2019 | nachricht Read more

Laser Processes for Multi-Functional Composites

Since composites combine the advantages of dissimilar materials, they can be used to exploit great potential in lightweight construction. At JEC World 2019 in Paris in March, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will present a broad range of laser-based technologies for the efficient production and processing of composite materials. Visitors to the joint booth of the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Construction AZL, Hall 5A/D17, will gain insight into joining and cutting processes as well as surface structuring.

Experts from Fraunhofer ILT are researching and developing laser processes for the economical joining, cutting, ablation or drilling of composite materials,...

18.02.2019 | nachricht Read more

Efficient reactor dismantling by laser beam cutting?

Can laser beam cutting underwater be used for efficient reactor dismantling? This question will be investigated by scientists of the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) within the scope of the AZULa project. In a feasibility study, they develop a laser beam cutting process and construct a compact cutting head for use in a radiologically activated and contaminated underwater environment.

This new system is supposed to enable the direct dismantling of nuclear facilities (reactor pressure vessels). Laser beam cutting offers significant advantages...

05.02.2019 | nachricht Read more

Adhesive Process Developed for Shingle Cell Technology

The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE in Freiburg has developed a special adhesive process to interconnect silicon solar cells for the industrial production of shingle modules. The market demand for shingle modules is rising rapidly due to their high efficiency and pleasing aesthetics. The cell stringer at Fraunhofer ISE is unique in Germany. It offers a wide range of possibilities for the prototype production of this highly efficient module.

Due to mechanical stresses, shingle cells cannot be soldered like conventional cells. Now with the adhesive technology, it has first become possible to...

09.01.2019 | nachricht Read more

Seawater turns into freshwater through solar energy: A new low-cost technology

A study conducted at Politecnico di Torino and published by the journal Nature Sustainability promotes an innovative and low-cost technology to turn seawater into drinking water, thanks to the use of solar energy alone

According to FAO estimates, by 2025 nearly 2 billion people may not have enough drinking water to satisfy their daily needs. One of the possible solutions to...

08.01.2019 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Tomorrow´s coolants of choice

Scientists assess the potential of magnetic-cooling materials

Later during this century, around 2060, a paradigm shift in global energy consumption is expected: we will spend more energy for cooling than for heating....

Im Focus: The working of a molecular string phone

Researchers from the Department of Atomically Resolved Dynamics of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg, the University of Potsdam (both in Germany) and the University of Toronto (Canada) have pieced together a detailed time-lapse movie revealing all the major steps during the catalytic cycle of an enzyme. Surprisingly, the communication between the protein units is accomplished via a water-network akin to a string telephone. This communication is aligned with a ‘breathing’ motion, that is the expansion and contraction of the protein.

This time-lapse sequence of structures reveals dynamic motions as a fundamental element in the molecular foundations of biology.

Im Focus: Milestones on the Way to the Nuclear Clock

Two research teams have succeeded simultaneously in measuring the long-sought Thorium nuclear transition, which enables extremely precise nuclear clocks. TU Wien (Vienna) is part of both teams.

If you want to build the most accurate clock in the world, you need something that "ticks" very fast and extremely precise. In an atomic clock, electrons are...

Im Focus: Graphene sets the stage for the next generation of THz astronomy detectors

Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology have demonstrated a detector made from graphene that could revolutionize the sensors used in next-generation space telescopes. The findings were recently published in the scientific journal Nature Astronomy.

Beyond superconductors, there are few materials that can fulfill the requirements needed for making ultra-sensitive and fast terahertz (THz) detectors for...

Im Focus: Physicists from Stuttgart prove the existence of a supersolid state of matte

A supersolid is a state of matter that can be described in simplified terms as being solid and liquid at the same time. In recent years, extensive efforts have been devoted to the detection of this exotic quantum matter. A research team led by Tilman Pfau and Tim Langen at the 5th Institute of Physics of the University of Stuttgart has succeeded in proving experimentally that the long-sought supersolid state of matter exists. The researchers report their results in Nature magazine.

In our everyday lives, we are familiar with matter existing in three different states: solid, liquid, or gas. However, if matter is cooled down to extremely...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

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