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Communications sciences, communications theory and communications technology

Communications sciences (communications technology) is engaged in communications processes. Communications is defined as the exchange of symbols across distances in time and space. The central aspect of communications sciences (communications technology) is the development of communications models (Black Box, stimulus response, interactive media) that describe various verbal and non-verbal communications technology processes.

Media impact models in communications technology

Media impact models such as sender-receiver models, the stimulus-response model, interactive media and the black box play a key role in communications technology. These types of media impact models attempt to explain the theoretical correlations of indirect communications between the sender, the media and the receiver. In particular, the interaction between mass media and humans is a prevailing topic in this area. Moreover, media impact models such as the black box, AIDA and interactive media are important for advertising and online marketing.

Linear communications technology - the black box

Explanatory models such as the black box are representative of the unidirectional communications technologies of the pre-Internet era. The black box is based on the stimulus-response model, a concept predicated on the idea that a human stimulus (e.g., an advertising announcement) results in a direct response. The black box metaphor adds the human behavioral concept to the stimulus-response model. The stimulus undergoes a series of linear thought processes in the black box until finally the response is produced.

Interactive media - communications technology of the future

The Internet radically changed the linear, one-dimensional medial communications theory behind the black box concept. Interactive media enables active communications between humans and media for the first time. Interactive media occur in all of the various forms of Web 2.0. Interactive media covers communications opportunities ranging from newspaper article commentary and private blogs to web sites and social networks. Interactive media is characterized by the non-linear use of technical communications technology, which enables bidirectional communications by giving receivers the opportunity to actively participate in and design the process. The Internet thus illustrates high-quality interactive media that is available through genuine, full-fledged feedback channels. In contrast to the black box model, this leads to bidirectional contact.

Communications technology - interactive media from a research perspective

Interactive media is dramatically changing how media is received. Humans are being transformed from passive receivers to active participants in the media design process. The reason is the Internet, which takes media and humans out of the black box and provides both of them a completely new way to interact. Interactive media opens up a brand new area of research in the field of communications technology. Because of its leading-edge status, interactive media is one of the most-discussed areas of research in communications theory. In contrast, concepts such as the black box theory are being increasingly challenged.

Research methods in communications technology

Empirical research methods play an important role in communications technology. This includes surveys, observations and experiments. The black box as well as stimulus response theories were built on empirical research. Interactive media such as social networks can also be analyzed by means of empirical evaluations. In the area of interactive media, the Internet provides an excellent statistical foundation. Rely on innovations-report to gain an overview of the new research aspects from the fields of communications technology, media technology, black box, stimulus response and interactive media.

Communications Media

Engineering and research-driven innovations in the field of communications are addressed here, in addition to business developments in the field of media-wide communications.

innovations-report offers informative reports and articles related to interactive media, media management, digital television, E-business, online advertising and information and communications technologies.

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New cruise ship “Mein Schiff 1” features Fraunhofer 3D sound on board

On May 11 this year, “Mein Schiff 1”, the seventh and most technically advanced cruise ship of the TUI Cruises fleet, was christened and launched in the port of Hamburg. ”Mein Schiff 1” stands for a new generation of ships operated by Hamburg based cruise company TUI Cruises. For the first time ever, a cruise ship features SpatialSound Wave, the 3D sound system developed by Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT.

The facts and figures of the new ship are quite impressive. “Mein Schiff 1” has a maximum passenger capacity of nearly 3,000 and accommodates 12 restaurants...

05.09.2018 | nachricht Read more

Small enclosure, big sound, clear speech

Audio technology developed by the Fraunhofer IDMT in Oldenburg used in Deutsche Telekom’s smart speaker

The Fraunhofer IDMT in Oldenburg has developed the audio technology for Deutsche Telekom’s smart speaker. At the heart of the work is the optimized interaction...

31.08.2018 | nachricht Read more

The plastic brain: Better connectivity of brain regions with training

Researchers at the Leibniz-Institutes für Wissensmedien (IWM) and of the Graduate School and Research Network LEAD at the University of Tübingen now found out: Short and intensive arithmetic training strengthens the neuronal connections between brain regions in adults. This neuronal plasticity through numerical learning was already detectable after only five training sessions.

No matter whether a person learns new knowledge or a new body movement – synapses, nerve cell connections and entire brain areas, i.e. the function and...

02.07.2018 | nachricht Read more

Arguments, Emotions, and News distribution in social media - Leibniz-WissenschaftsCampus Tübingen

The Leibniz-WissenschaftsCampus Tübingen (WCT) will be expanded through two projects located at the University of Stuttgart starting in May 2018. The universities of Stuttgart and Tübingen and the Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien (IWM) consider this cooperation as a worthwhile preparatory work for the Excellence Cluster proposal “Understanding understanding: language and text”. The projects, which are carried out by tandem partners from the IWM, the Institute for Natural Language Processing (IMS) and the Institute for Visualisation and Interactive Systems (VIS) of the University of Stuttgart, will be financed for three years by the University of Stuttgart.

Two new projects of the University of Stuttgart at the Leibniz-WissenschaftsCampus Tübingen „Cognitive Interfaces“

04.05.2018 | nachricht Read more

High Number of Science Enthusiasts in Switzerland

When it comes to attitudes toward science and research, Swiss people fall into four distinct categories ranging from enthusiasts (28 percent) to completely uninterested (13 percent). Despite many differences between them, people in all categories support the promotion of science and research, reveals a study by the universities of Zurich and Fribourg.

The Science Barometer Switzerland published in 2016 showed a clear picture: Swiss people are interested in science and research, and think they are worth...

05.02.2018 | nachricht Read more

Between filter bubbles, uneven visibility and transnationality

The Internet would be nothing without hyperlinks. They are what makes the Net a network. They define the paths that give users access to content. And they also help to determine which results search engines show over others. Hyperlinks are set neither evenly nor randomly. What does all this mean for political discourse? And which actors are given disproportionately high visibility? A study examines this question.

A research team made up of Bern-based communications scientists (Silke Adam, Thomas Häussler, Ueli Reber and Hannah Schmid-Petri) wanted to know how hyperlinks...

06.12.2017 | nachricht Read more

New Technologies for A/V Analysis and Search

At this year’s NAB Show, the world’s largest convention for the digital media industry, taking place April 22–27, in Las Vegas, Fraunhofer IDMT will be presenting new technologies for A/V analysis and search. The updated tools allow users to detect partial duplicates, track metadata and content reuse, automatically extract metadata and manage complex multimodal analysis workflows.

A/V Segment Matching – Tracking metadata and detecting duplicates

13.04.2017 | nachricht Read more

On patrol in social networks

The digital revolution is bringing new challenges and sweeping changes for such organizations as law enforcement agencies that have traditionally been responsible for security and stability. As part of the EU project MEDI@4SEC, Fraunhofer IAO is developing solutions and recommended strategies for enhancing people’s understanding of how social media can be used in the realm of public security.

Citizens have long been interested in criminal cases and keen to help the police solve them. What’s new is that people are increasingly combining these...

25.01.2017 | nachricht Read more

Tile Based DASH Streaming for Virtual Reality with HEVC from Fraunhofer HHI

Fraunhofer HHI‘s technique for Compressed Domain Tile Aggregation with HEVC allows VR video applications with drastically reduced video bitrates and decoder requirements. Tile Based DASH Streaming with Fraunhofer HHI’s technique allows maintaining high video quality in the current viewport while streaming lower resolution outside the viewport. The approach can adapt the video bitstream to the current user viewport on-the-fly without heavy transcoding or storage of a large number of pre-rendered viewports on the server. At the CES fair 2017 in Las Vegas, Fraunhofer HHI will show this technology at Booth 20944, South Hall 1.

Tile Based DASH Streaming for Virtual Reality with HEVC – Enabler for high quality 360 degree video from Fraunhofer HHI at CES

03.01.2017 | nachricht Read more

Product placement: Only brands placed very prominently benefit from 3D technology

Product placements in movies are omnipresent. But how do modern film technologies, particularly the 3D technology, influence the memory of brands placed in movies? A new study has revealed that only brands placed very prominently benefit from 3D as compared to 2D technology, while the memory of less prominent and more subtle placements tends to dwindle. In the case of 4D movies (3D enhanced with scent), the memory was weakest.

The results, recently published in the journal “Media Psychology”, are based on two studies, which investigated product placements in two Hollywood movies....

07.07.2016 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fraunhofer IDMT demonstrates its method for acoustic quality inspection at »Sensor+Test 2019« in Nürnberg

From June 25th to 27th 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT in Ilmenau (Germany) will be presenting a new solution for acoustic quality inspection allowing contact-free, non-destructive testing of manufactured parts and components. The method which has reached Technology Readiness Level 6 already, is currently being successfully tested in practical use together with a number of industrial partners.

Reducing machine downtime, manufacturing defects, and excessive scrap

Im Focus: Successfully Tested in Praxis: Bidirectional Sensor Technology Optimizes Laser Material Deposition

The quality of additively manufactured components depends not only on the manufacturing process, but also on the inline process control. The process control ensures a reliable coating process because it detects deviations from the target geometry immediately. At LASER World of PHOTONICS 2019, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be demonstrating how well bi-directional sensor technology can already be used for Laser Material Deposition (LMD) in combination with commercial optics at booth A2.431.

Fraunhofer ILT has been developing optical sensor technology specifically for production measurement technology for around 10 years. In particular, its »bd-1«...

Im Focus: The hidden structure of the periodic system

The well-known representation of chemical elements is just one example of how objects can be arranged and classified

The periodic table of elements that most chemistry books depict is only one special case. This tabular overview of the chemical elements, which goes back to...

Im Focus: MPSD team discovers light-induced ferroelectricity in strontium titanate

Light can be used not only to measure materials’ properties, but also to change them. Especially interesting are those cases in which the function of a material can be modified, such as its ability to conduct electricity or to store information in its magnetic state. A team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg used terahertz frequency light pulses to transform a non-ferroelectric material into a ferroelectric one.

Ferroelectricity is a state in which the constituent lattice “looks” in one specific direction, forming a macroscopic electrical polarisation. The ability to...

Im Focus: Determining the Earth’s gravity field more accurately than ever before

Researchers at TU Graz calculate the most accurate gravity field determination of the Earth using 1.16 billion satellite measurements. This yields valuable knowledge for climate research.

The Earth’s gravity fluctuates from place to place. Geodesists use this phenomenon to observe geodynamic and climatological processes. Using...

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