Studies and analyses are vital to progress and innovation and are the only way to empirically verify theories.
Not all fields of science are dependent on empirical studies and analyses to verify a thesis. Mathematics, theology, philosophy and law are examples of fields that revolve within a stand-alone world in which new findings are derived by means of logical operations consisting of axioms, postulates or articles of faith (theology) that need not be proven true or accurate through empirical studies or analyses. Although these subjects are indispensable when it comes to basic research, by themselves they don't yield technical advances.
Empirical scientific approaches are diametrically opposed to these fields however. In this case, new theories are developed based on thought processes, observations and speculation. Ensuring that this knowledge has actual scientific relevance requires that it undergo an empirical evaluation however. Researchers rely on studies and analyses to compare these theses with real observations. New scientific knowledge is considered valid only after empirical studies and analyses show that theory and reality coincide. In the process it is imperative that the studies and analyses always produce the same result under the same experiment structure. Only then it is empirically proven that the result actually behaves in line with the theory.
The validation process for new findings based on studies and analyses as described above is in no way limited to natural and engineering sciences such as physics, biology, chemistry, medicine and health, machine engineering or aero and space engineering. In fields such as the social sciences, studies and analyses are also indispensable for empirically proving the accuracy of assumptions and conclusions. Sociology uses empirical-based statistics, studies and analyses to determine if statements about the migration behavior of specific population groups is accurate for instance. The field of psychology also relies on analyses and studies to empirically validate the assumptions of certain behavior patterns.
Before the Enlightenment changed our way of thinking, universities tended to postulate and speculate more than perform scientific research. Innovations therefore were apt be accidental. Once researchers were convinced that scientific results were only possible through the use of empirical studies and analysis, the groundwork was laid for the rapid advances in science that followed. Empirical studies and analyses range from simple experiments, particularly by measuring, weighing and counting, to extremely complex processes that require an enormous amount of time and money. Determining the validity of scientific theories using empirical assurances is one of the prerequisites for implementing these theories in practice. When a specific fact has been confirmed and documented based on studies and analyses, the assumption is that it will remain a fact in the future under the same premises. Only then does it make sense to develop new technologies based on this knowledge, because this provides sufficient proof of the assumption that they always function in the same manner.
Gregor Mendel's studies and analyses on genetics provided empirical proof of his theories of heredity, which then led to modern plant breeding and the establishment of food security for millions of people. The effectiveness of penicillin, another invaluable innovation for mankind, was empirically proven by Alexander Fleming through medical studies and analyses.
innovations-report maintains a wealth of in-depth studies and analyses from a variety of subject areas including business and finance, medicine and ph
People who sleep more than eight hours a night may have an increased risk of stroke, according to a new study published in the February 25, 2015, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
The study found that people who slept more than eight hours a night, called long sleepers, were 46 percent more likely to have a stroke than people who slept...26.02.2015 | Read more
Economists from the Jena University present a study about customers’ complaints in the service industry
The mobile phone bill is not quite correct, the wrong food is served at a restaurant or the hotel room hasn’t been properly cleaned: Most of us may have been...25.02.2015 | Read more
Study suggests potential treatment for deadly heart problem
The average heart beats 35 million times a year - 2.5 billion times over a lifetime. Those beats must be precisely calibrated; even a small divergence from the...23.02.2015 | Read more
A new study links the virus that causes chicken pox and shingles to a condition that inflames blood vessels on the temples and scalp in the elderly, called giant cell arteritis. The study is published in the February 18, 2015, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. The condition can cause sudden blindness or stroke and can be life-threatening.
The varicella zoster virus, of the herpes virus family, can cause chicken pox and may reactivate later in life in the form of shingles, a very painful rash.19.02.2015 | Read more
Lack of sleep can elevate levels of free fatty acids in the blood, accompanied by temporary pre-diabetic conditions in healthy young men, according to new research published online February 19, 2015, in Diabetologia, the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes.
The study, the first to examine the impact of sleep loss on 24-hour fatty acid levels in the blood, adds to emerging evidence that insufficient sleep--a highly...19.02.2015 | Read more
Next generation chemotherapy for prostate cancer has unique properties that could make it more effective earlier in treatment if confirmed in clinical trials
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer for men in the United States. Only one class of chemotherapy called taxanes is effective against the...17.02.2015 | Read more
Circling hundreds of miles above Earth, weather satellites are working round-the-clock to provide rainfall data that are key to a complex system of global flood prediction.
A new Cornell University study warns that the existing system of space-based rainfall observation satellites requires a serious overhaul. Particularly in many...13.02.2015 | Read more
Stem cell transplants may be more effective than the drug mitoxantrone for people with severe cases of multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a new study published in the February 11, 2015, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
The study involved 21 people whose disability due to MS had increased during the previous year even though they were taking conventional medications (also...12.02.2015 | Read more
At many locations around the world, the night sky shines hundreds of times brighter than it did before the introduction of artificial light. Berlin based researchers from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) and the Freie Universität Berlin led a groundbreaking study into variations in the radiance of the night sky. Together with an international team of researchers from Europe, North America, and Asia, they found remarkably large variations in artificial night sky brightness at the different observation sites.
Light allows us to extend the day, increasing productivity. But the introduction of light into the nighttime environment is one of the most striking changes...12.02.2015 | Read more
Rust never sleeps. Whether a reference to the 1979 Neil Young album or a product designed to protect metal surfaces, the phrase invokes the idea that corrosion from oxidation — the more general chemical name for rust and other reactions of metal with oxygen — is an inevitable, persistent process. But a new Binghamton University study reveals that certain features of metal surfaces can stop the process of oxidation in its tracks.
The findings, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could be relevant to understanding and perhaps controlling oxidation...11.02.2015 | Read more
On the search for high performance materials for applications such as gas storage, thermal insulators or dynamic nanosystems it is essential to understand the...
Geysers like Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park erupt periodically because of loops or side-chambers in their underground plumbing, according to recent...
In various industries such as automotive industry, aircraft or steel construction failures in the final product can quickly lead to malfunction and, as a result, can massively compromise the operational reliability. Thus, nondestructive testing methods will play a key role in the quality assurance because they allow to inspect components and parts without destroying them.
From 10 to 12 March 2015, at the JEC Europe in Paris, engineers of Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will introduce a novel procedure which enables noncontact and...
The coating of foils, the printing of labels or the gluing of electronic components are very different and demanding applications. They all require innovative production processes to remain nice to look at, durable and scratch-proof. Heraeus Noblelight infrared and UV systems increase production speed and improve the quality of the drying process.
Easy retrofitting at a paper coating line
Investigators with the National Institutes of Health have discovered the genomic switches of a blood cell key to regulating the human immune system. The...
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27.02.2015 | Power and Electrical Engineering
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27.02.2015 | Physics and Astronomy