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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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'Direct writing' of diamond patterns from graphite a potential technological leap

What began as research into a method to strengthen metals has led to the discovery of a new technique that uses a pulsing laser to create synthetic nanodiamond films and patterns from graphite, with potential applications from biosensors to computer chips.

"The biggest advantage is that you can selectively deposit nanodiamond on rigid surfaces without the high temperatures and pressures normally needed to produce...

06.11.2014 | nachricht Read more

Lord of the Microrings

Berkeley Lab Reports Breakthrough in Microring Laser Cavities

A significant breakthrough in laser technology has been reported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab)...

31.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

Underwater laser cutting

Underwater construction on offshore wind farms, bridges or locks must presently be done by scuba divers.

For maintenance and repair of metal constructions, a number of processes are available, but these are time consuming and difficult on the divers.

22.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

Elements of successful connections

Element-by-element tracking of laser processing reveals how metallic alloys reorganize during microscale laser melting processes

High-power lasers that can selectively cut and join metallic products are becoming increasingly important in today’s manufacturing industry. Now, Yingchun Guan...

09.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

New brooms sweep clean – innovative nondestructive testing en route to standardization

Nondestructive tests find defects that remain hidden to the naked eye, for example, defective weld connections, cracks in the material, voids or inclusions. Fraunhofer IZFP is currently preparing standardization of inductively excited thermography, a novel nondestructive inspection method. This procedure is to be configured as a replacement for magnetic particle testing.

The industrial demand for manufacturing-accompanying nondestructive inspection by standardized methods has grown steadily in recent years. Compared to...

09.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

Joining ultra-high-strength chromium steels reliably with laser technology

Incredibly light and holds up in collisions – but often impossible to weld: this characterizes ultra-high-strength chromium steels that, thanks to their high carbon content, could not be reliably bonded together by laser until now. At this year’s EuroBLECH, the International Sheet Metal Working Technology Exhibition, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will use a B pillar to show how laser welding can be reliably used on press-hardened, martensitic chromium steels.

Within the scope of the research project SECOMAL, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen has determined process parameters and process...

02.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

Chinese scientists unveil liquid phase 3-D printing method using low melting metal alloy ink

Three-dimensional metal printing technology is an expanding field that has enormous potential applications in areas ranging from supporting structures, functional electronics to medical devices. Conventional 3D metal printing is generally restricted to metals with a high melting point, and the process is rather time consuming.

Now scientists at the Beijing Key Laboratory of CryoBiomedical Engineering, part of the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry at the Chinese Academy of...

30.09.2014 | nachricht Read more

Researchers convert carbon dioxide into a valuable resource

Researchers at Aalto University have opened a pilot plant that converts CO2 and slag, the by-product of steel manufacturing, into a valuable mineral product.

The product, Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC), is used in e.g. plastics, papers, rubbers and paints. The innovative plant represents the next stage prior...

18.09.2014 | nachricht Read more

Reliable joining of high-strength steels using a laser hybrid welding process

Laser-gas metal arc (GMA) hybrid welding is fast, good for deep welding, and can be used to bridge large gaps.

However, for thicker high-strength, fine-grain structural steels, hot cracks and undesired hardness levels can occur in the welding seam. For this reason, in...

05.09.2014 | nachricht Read more

Welding thick metal sheets quickly

It is possible to weld thick pipelines and metal sheets made of aluminum alloys or steel at high speeds of 6 m/min. respectively 1.5 m/min. with a hybrid welding process developed at the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH). In the future, the laser-based process can be used to shorten processing times, and thus significantly reduce the processing costs of liquid gas tanks and pipelines

cientists of the Joining and Cutting of Metals Group at the LZH have developed a process that can be used to make single-sided, zero-defect welds for aluminum...

08.07.2014 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Permafrost soil is possible source of abrupt rise in greenhouse gases at end of last ice age

Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) have identified a possible source of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that were abruptly released to the atmosphere in large quantities around 14,600 years ago.

According to this new interpretation, the CO2 – released during the onset of the Bølling/Allerød warm period – presumably had their origin in thawing Arctic...

Im Focus: Small volcanic eruptions could be slowing global warming

Small volcanic eruptions might eject more of an atmosphere-cooling gas into Earth’s upper atmosphere than previously thought, potentially contributing to the recent slowdown in global warming, according to a new study.

Scientists have long known that volcanoes can cool the atmosphere, mainly by means of sulfur dioxide gas that eruptions expel. Droplets of sulfuric acid that...

Im Focus: Researchers discern the shapes of high-order Brownian motions

For the first time, scientists have vividly mapped the shapes and textures of high-order modes of Brownian motions--in this case, the collective macroscopic movement of molecules in microdisk resonators--researchers at Case Western Reserve University report.

The new technology holds promise for multimodal sensing and signal processing, and to develop optical coding for computing and other information-processing...

Im Focus: New form of crystalline order holds promise for thermoelectric applications

Since the 1850's scientists have known that crystalline materials are organized into fourteen different basic lattice structures. However, a team of researchers from Vanderbilt University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) now reports that it has discovered an entirely new form of crystalline order that simultaneously exhibits both crystal and polycrystalline properties, which they describe as "interlaced crystals."

Writing in the Nov. 14 issue of the journal Nature Communications, the researchers describe finding this unusual arrangement of atoms while studying...

Im Focus: A Piece of the Quantum Puzzle

UCSB physicists demonstrate the high level of controllability needed to explore ideas in quantum simulations

While the Martinis Lab at UC Santa Barbara has been focusing on quantum computation, former postdoctoral fellow Pedram Roushan and several colleagues have been...

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