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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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Applying electron beams to 3-D objects

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP now has the technological means of applying electron beams very flexible to 3-D objects through use of its new electron wand of the Swiss company ebeam by COMET.

Electron beams are useful in many different applications. They reliably sterilize seed, can weld small structures precisely and reliable, and cure decorative...

23.09.2016 | nachricht Read more

New process for cell transfection in high-throughput screening

So far, the established methods for an efficient and cell-preserving transfection in high-throughput screening lead to unsatisfactory results. Within the scope of a project of the Industrial Joint Research (IFG), the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and its partners succeeded in developing a functional model for a gold nanoparticle-based laser transfection in high-throughput.

This transfection method is characterized by molecules entering the cells through an optically induced process. By attaching the gold nanoparticles to the...

21.03.2016 | nachricht Read more

Sustainable products: Fraunhofer LBF investigates recycling of halogen-free flame retardant

Zero plastics to landfill increases the need to mechanical recycling of plastics. This also applies to flame retardant plastics which are increasingly formulated with halogen-free flame retardants. According to EU regulations, plastic waste recycling is to increase in quality, and recycling rates should continue to rise: the EU target for 2020 is 70 percent.

The Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF in Darmstadt/Germany has therefore launched a new research project on the...

17.02.2016 | nachricht Read more

CT-Automat: Fully automatic serial testing of materials and components

For many years, Fraunhofer IZFP’s CT-Automat, a system for computed tomography (CT), has proven to be a fully automated laboratory system for industrial quality control. Several leading European seed companies are using it as an effective tool for control and quality assessment in seed production for fast obtainment of objective quality statements concerning single seeds. This nondestructive inspection procedure evaluates the quality of the seed without damaging the seed itself and without altering the surface.

The CT Automat is used by Europe's leading seed producers to minimize seed rejects especially in case of sugar beet seeds to ensure at same time high-quality...

16.02.2016 | nachricht Read more

Small parts make the difference

Call for partners: high coating-rate vacuum deposition for small parts in big volumes

Bulk goods? – yes, numerous small parts in industrial manufacturing are produced and processed in such large quantities that we speak of them as bulk goods....

12.01.2016 | nachricht Read more

Nanopores could take the salt out of seawater

University of Illinois engineers have found an energy-efficient material for removing salt from seawater that could provide a rebuttal to poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge's lament, "Water, water, every where, nor any drop to drink."

The material, a nanometer-thick sheet of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) riddled with tiny holes called nanopores, is specially designed to let high volumes of...

12.11.2015 | nachricht Read more

Coking of fluid fuels - New procedure shall analyze and avoid reasons

In heating appliances, diesel engines and other technical systems driven by fluid fuels and lubricants, combustion can lead to growing undesirable deposits (coking), which may affect the functionality of the system. Deposits arise during the evaporation of fuels on hot surfaces. The detailed processes are unclear. Within a common research project, the chair for Analytical Chemistry of the University Rostock and the Oel-Waerme-Institut (OWI) want to get to the bottom of the reasons for deposit formation in modern combustion systems.

Deposits arise during the evaporation of fuels on hot surfaces. The detailed processes are unclear. Within a common research project, the chair for Analytical...

06.11.2015 | nachricht Read more

LIMBO: Innovative joining technology for temperature-sensitive components

This November, the Experts of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presentinga pioneering novelty at productronica 2015, the world's leading trade fair for electronics development and production.They are focusing on a totally new laser-based joining technique that will provide plenty of momentum to the electronics production industry.

The five letters stand for a development from Aachen that is meant to inspire specialists from the electronics manufacturing sector: they are talking about...

04.11.2015 | nachricht Read more

Using optical fiber to generate a two-micron laser

Lasers with a wavelength of two microns could move the boundaries of surgery and molecule detection. Researchers at EPFL have managed to generate such lasers using a simple and inexpensive method

In recent years, two-micron lasers (0.002 millimetre) have been of growing interest among researchers. In the areas of surgery and molecule detection, for...

09.10.2015 | nachricht Read more

Water pathways make fuel cells more efficient

Researchers from the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) have developed a coating technique in the laboratory that could raise the efficiency of fuel cells. The PSI scientists have already applied to patent the technique, which is suitable for mass production.

Researchers from the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) have developed a coating technique in the laboratory that could raise the efficiency of fuel cells. Fuel...

24.09.2015 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

Im Focus: New Products - Highlights of COMPAMED 2016

COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.

In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...

Im Focus: Ultra-thin ferroelectric material for next-generation electronics

'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.

Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



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