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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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Nanoshaping method points to future manufacturing technology

A new method that creates large-area patterns of three-dimensional nanoshapes from metal sheets represents a potential manufacturing system to inexpensively mass produce innovations such as "plasmonic metamaterials" for advanced technologies.

The metamaterials have engineered surfaces that contain features, patterns or elements on the scale of nanometers that enable unprecedented control of light...

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A coating that protects against heat and oxidation

Researchers have developed a coating technique that they plan to use to protect tur- bine engine and waste incinerator components against heat and oxidation. A topcoat from micro-scaled hollow aluminium oxide spheres provides heat insulation, in the lab, already proved more economical than conventional techniques.

Gases don’t conduct heat as well as solids do. Cellular or aerated concretes take advantage of this effect, which experts call “gas-phase insulation”.

24.11.2014 | nachricht Read more

'Direct writing' of diamond patterns from graphite a potential technological leap

What began as research into a method to strengthen metals has led to the discovery of a new technique that uses a pulsing laser to create synthetic nanodiamond films and patterns from graphite, with potential applications from biosensors to computer chips.

"The biggest advantage is that you can selectively deposit nanodiamond on rigid surfaces without the high temperatures and pressures normally needed to produce...

06.11.2014 | nachricht Read more

Lord of the Microrings

Berkeley Lab Reports Breakthrough in Microring Laser Cavities

A significant breakthrough in laser technology has been reported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab)...

31.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

Underwater laser cutting

Underwater construction on offshore wind farms, bridges or locks must presently be done by scuba divers.

For maintenance and repair of metal constructions, a number of processes are available, but these are time consuming and difficult on the divers.

22.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

Elements of successful connections

Element-by-element tracking of laser processing reveals how metallic alloys reorganize during microscale laser melting processes

High-power lasers that can selectively cut and join metallic products are becoming increasingly important in today’s manufacturing industry. Now, Yingchun Guan...

09.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

New brooms sweep clean – innovative nondestructive testing en route to standardization

Nondestructive tests find defects that remain hidden to the naked eye, for example, defective weld connections, cracks in the material, voids or inclusions. Fraunhofer IZFP is currently preparing standardization of inductively excited thermography, a novel nondestructive inspection method. This procedure is to be configured as a replacement for magnetic particle testing.

The industrial demand for manufacturing-accompanying nondestructive inspection by standardized methods has grown steadily in recent years. Compared to...

09.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

Joining ultra-high-strength chromium steels reliably with laser technology

Incredibly light and holds up in collisions – but often impossible to weld: this characterizes ultra-high-strength chromium steels that, thanks to their high carbon content, could not be reliably bonded together by laser until now. At this year’s EuroBLECH, the International Sheet Metal Working Technology Exhibition, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will use a B pillar to show how laser welding can be reliably used on press-hardened, martensitic chromium steels.

Within the scope of the research project SECOMAL, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen has determined process parameters and process...

02.10.2014 | nachricht Read more

Chinese scientists unveil liquid phase 3-D printing method using low melting metal alloy ink

Three-dimensional metal printing technology is an expanding field that has enormous potential applications in areas ranging from supporting structures, functional electronics to medical devices. Conventional 3D metal printing is generally restricted to metals with a high melting point, and the process is rather time consuming.

Now scientists at the Beijing Key Laboratory of CryoBiomedical Engineering, part of the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry at the Chinese Academy of...

30.09.2014 | nachricht Read more

Researchers convert carbon dioxide into a valuable resource

Researchers at Aalto University have opened a pilot plant that converts CO2 and slag, the by-product of steel manufacturing, into a valuable mineral product.

The product, Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC), is used in e.g. plastics, papers, rubbers and paints. The innovative plant represents the next stage prior...

18.09.2014 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Quantum physics just got less complicated

Here's a nice surprise: quantum physics is less complicated than we thought. An international team of researchers has proved that two peculiar features of the quantum world previously considered distinct are different manifestations of the same thing. The result is published 19 December in Nature Communications.

Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of...

Im Focus: First series production vehicle with software control

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Im Focus: Trigger mechanism for recovery after spinal cord injury revealed

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This circuit-level mechanism behind the process of motor recovery was elucidated by Prof. Silvia Arber's research group at the Biozentrum, University of Basel...

Im Focus: Switching to spintronics

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