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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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Welding thick metal sheets quickly

It is possible to weld thick pipelines and metal sheets made of aluminum alloys or steel at high speeds of 6 m/min. respectively 1.5 m/min. with a hybrid welding process developed at the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH). In the future, the laser-based process can be used to shorten processing times, and thus significantly reduce the processing costs of liquid gas tanks and pipelines

cientists of the Joining and Cutting of Metals Group at the LZH have developed a process that can be used to make single-sided, zero-defect welds for aluminum...

08.07.2014 | nachricht Read more

Nano-optics: Getting the most out of tiny lasers

An off-center waveguide enables light to be efficiently extracted from nanoscale lasers.

Semiconductor optical devices are becoming increasingly commonplace. For example, light-emitting diodes, as they become more power efficient, are rapidly...

07.07.2014 | nachricht Read more

Flowing water energizes minerals

Researchers from Mainz discover that liquid flow changes surface chemistry of minerals, with implications for geological sciences.

A collaborative research team from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPIP) in Germany and the University of Namur in Belgium discovered a...

06.06.2014 | nachricht Read more

Scientists unveil first method for controlling the growth of metal crystals

Researchers have announced the first ever method for controlling the growth of metal-crystals from single atoms.

Published in the journal Nature Communications and developed at the University of Warwick, the method, called Nanocrystallometry, allows for the creation of...

28.05.2014 | nachricht Read more

Broadening the scope for synthesizing optically active compounds

Yutaka Ukaji and colleagues at Kanazawa University have now developed a method for desymmetrising compounds to produce new chiral molecules. The process allows 99% selectivity in the chemicals produced.

Chiral compounds are increasingly important in chemical manufacturing. They are distinguished by a special kind of asymmetry in their molecular structure. 

09.05.2014 | nachricht Read more

Advanced Processes for Functional Coatings at SVC

The Fraunhofer FEP speaks at the SVC TechCon on May 3 – 8th, 2014 in Chicago and provides insights into various research findings in the area of advanced processes for functional coatings.

The team of scientists from the Fraunhofer FEP presents vacuum processes for encapsulation, generation of optical coatings and treatment of flexible glass.

29.04.2014 | nachricht Read more

New Material Coating Technology Mimics Nature’s Lotus Effect

Virginia Tech mechanical engineer develops new low-cost material coating technique

Ever stop to consider why lotus plant leaves always look clean? The hydrophobic – water repelling – characteristic of the leaf, termed the “Lotus effect,”...

22.04.2014 | nachricht Read more

Increasing productivity and optimizing processes when working materials using USP-lasers

Pulsar Photonics GmbH, a spin-off of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, has developed a tool system that significantly boosts the cost effectiveness of using ultrashort pulsed techniques to process materials by turning to a multi-beam approach. Users can employ the integrated measurement sensors to calibrate the tool and establish parameters in advance of material processing as well as to assure quality once the work has been completed. The experts will be presenting their tool system and multi-beam scanner to the public for the first time at the Hannover Messe.

Over the past few years, the use of ultrashort pulsed lasers in material processing has been riding a wave of success. Reasons include the laser’s outstanding...

11.03.2014 | nachricht Read more

More Flexibility for Steel Production

Siemens enables steel mills to adapt their production processes more flexibly to raw material prices and emission regulations.
The newly developed JET Process provides sufficient heat energy to melt a high proportion of scrap and sponge iron into liquid pig iron. As a result, steel... 27.01.2014 | nachricht Read more

High-quality whey proteins for foodstuffs

Whey resulting from cheese production contains valuable proteins that still often remain unused.
In the EU-funded project Whey2Food the University of Hohenheim and the Fraunhofer IGB, together with partners from industry, are investigating how high-quality... 17.01.2014 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: From Finding Nemo to minerals – what riches lie in the deep sea?

As fishing and the harvesting of metals, gas and oil have expanded deeper and deeper into the ocean, scientists are drawing attention to the services provided by the deep sea, the world’s largest environment.

“This is the time to discuss deep-sea stewardship before exploitation is too much farther underway,” says lead-author Andrew Thurber. In a review published...

Im Focus: A transistor-like amplifier for single photons

A team of scientists at MPQ achieves a twentyfold amplification of single-photon signals with the help of an ultracold quantum gas.

Data transmission over long distances usually utilizes optical techniques via glass fibres – this ensures high speed transmission combined with low power...

Im Focus: New mass map of a distant galaxy cluster is the most precise yet

Stunning new observations from Frontier Fields

Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have mapped the mass within a galaxy cluster more precisely than ever before. Created using observations...

Im Focus: NIST shows ultrasonically propelled nanorods spin dizzyingly fast

Vibrate a solution of rod-shaped metal nanoparticles in water with ultrasound and they'll spin around their long axes like tiny drill bits. Why?

No one yet knows exactly. But researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have clocked their speed—and it's fast. At up to 150,000...

Im Focus: Mixing it up: Study provides new insight into Southern Ocean behaviour

A new study has found that turbulent mixing in the deep waters of the Southern Ocean, which has a profound effect on global ocean circulation and climate, varies with the strength of surface eddies – the ocean equivalent of storms in the atmosphere – and possibly also wind speeds.

It is the first study to link eddies at the surface to deep mixing on timescales of months to decades.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

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