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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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Lighter with Laser Welding

For a definitive breakthrough of lightweight materials in the automotive industry, new processes for manufacturing, testing and measuring are necessary. For this, steel-aluminum hybrid welds are of great interest, since they can be used for load-adapted, and at the same time lightweight components. Within the project LaserLeichter (Laser Lighter), the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) is currently developing a laser welding process for joining three-dimensional structures made of steel and aluminum in a hybrid design.

One of the challenges in welding steel with aluminum is to avoid hard and brittle intermetallic phases in the welding seam. These phases can occur easily,...

03.09.2015 | nachricht Read more

Gluing with the Laser

Natural stone like marble or granite are processed with saw blades with hard-wearing, diamond cutting segments. When these are damaged or worn, the cutting segments have to be replaced. Usually, the whole saw blade is then sent to a repair shop. 

The Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Institut für Werkzeugforschung und Werkstoffe (IFW) in Remscheid have now developed a mobile, laser-based process...

30.06.2015 | nachricht Read more

Innovative Modular Process Makes Plastic Film Coating Highly Efficient

The multiTask joint project funded by the Saxon Ministry of Science and Fine Arts (SMWK) and the European Fund for Regional Development (EFRE) was successfully completed. Scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, ISA Installations-, Steuerungs- und Automatisierungs GmbH and VTD Vakuumtechnik Dresden GmbH laid down the foundations of a new vacuum coating process for plastic films.

Plastic films serve many purposes in everyday life. They are used for packaging food, as substrates for flexible solar cells, even as decorative films for...

09.06.2015 | nachricht Read more

Laser technology advances microchip production*

A new process for cutting silicon wafers could streamline the production of smaller and more powerful microchips for electronic devices.

Electronic chips are built on small pieces of silicon that are cut from silicon sheets, called wafers, in a process known as dicing. Currently, dicing is...

21.05.2015 | nachricht Read more

Diagnostics of Quality of Graphene and Spatial Imaging of Reactivity Centers in Pd/C Catalysts

A convenient procedure to visualize defects on graphene layers by mapping the surface of carbon materials with an appropriate contrast agent was introduced by a team of researchers from Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow) involved in international collaborative project.

Developed imaging procedure has revealed organized patterns of defects on large areas of carbon surfaces. Several types of defects on the carbon surface can be...

20.05.2015 | nachricht Read more

Searching for the perfect laser beam

Current research in the area of laser beam cutting is focused on increasing expertise in forming fiber-guided laser beams for sheet metal cutting and transferring that knowledge to damage-free glass cutting in the display industry as well as water-jet-guided precision cutting of small parts.

As part of the EU’s HALO project (“High power Adaptable Laser beams for materials processing”), scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT...

13.05.2015 | nachricht Read more

Infrared Emitters Enable New Manufacturing Processes

Infrared heat for sandwich structures

The manufacture of the latest sandwich structures, such as those used in modern aircraft and motor vehicles, requires various heating processes. An infrared...

11.05.2015 | nachricht Read more

Spray drying the precision particle under the virtual magnifying glass

Spray drying is a common manufacturing process, used in the production of ceramic granulate for technical components or dental prostheses as well as dissolvable medicinal substances, food additives and in the processing of milk into powder. Using computer simulation methodology developed by scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, a more comprehensible understanding can now be gained of the behavior of particles in solvent during the spray drying process. This allows powder and granulate manufacturers to specifically adjust the properties of their products while reducing waste.

Previously, it was unusual for granule and powder producers to use granulation simulations to improve their products. For new product development or process...

06.05.2015 | nachricht Read more

Electrical Storage: Safe Contacts between Battery Cells by Laser Beam Welding

The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT has developed a new laser welding technology for temperature-sensitive cylindrical battery cells that is now ready for series production. Since 2009 the experts from in Aachen, Germany have been working on battery joining – the process of connecting individual cells into packs. They are currently working with other Fraunhofer Institutes to put together a complete battery pack.

The all-important joining process is carried out using fiber lasers with a maximum power output of 1 kW. The method is called oscillation laser welding, a...

20.04.2015 | nachricht Read more

Saving costs with antifouling coatings

It’s a familiar scenario – limescale in the electric kettle and coffee machine or water stains on the taps, these are problems which are not yet soluble in the household. The situation is however somewhat different in industrial systems: it is precisely in large-scale production with liquid media that so-called ‘fouling’ is often the cause of expensive cleaning cycles and thus of longer machine downtimes.

For example, the milk pasteurization line is stopped once again and cleaned after just one operating cycle because, for example, milk proteins have formed...

01.04.2015 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact Inverter for Uninterruptible Power Supplies

Silicon Carbide Components Enable Efficiency of 98.7 percent

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE have developed a highly compact and efficient inverter for use in uninterruptible power...

Im Focus: How wind sculpted Earth's largest dust deposit

China's Loess Plateau was formed by wind alternately depositing dust or removing dust over the last 2.6 million years, according to a new report from University of Arizona geoscientists. The study is the first to explain how the steep-fronted plateau formed.

China's Loess Plateau was formed by wind alternately depositing dust or removing dust over the last 2.6 million years, according to a new report from...

Im Focus: An engineered surface unsticks sticky water droplets

The leaves of the lotus flower, and other natural surfaces that repel water and dirt, have been the model for many types of engineered liquid-repelling surfaces. As slippery as these surfaces are, however, tiny water droplets still stick to them. Now, Penn State researchers have developed nano/micro-textured, highly slippery surfaces able to outperform these naturally inspired coatings, particularly when the water is a vapor or tiny droplets.

Enhancing the mobility of liquid droplets on rough surfaces could improve condensation heat transfer for power-plant heat exchangers, create more efficient...

Im Focus: Increasingly severe disturbances weaken world's temperate forests

Longer, more severe, and hotter droughts and a myriad of other threats, including diseases and more extensive and severe wildfires, are threatening to transform some of the world's temperate forests, a new study published in Science has found. Without informed management, some forests could convert to shrublands or grasslands within the coming decades.

"While we have been trying to manage for resilience of 20th century conditions, we realize now that we must prepare for transformations and attempt to ease...

Im Focus: OU astrophysicist and collaborators find supermassive black holes in quasar nearest Earth

A University of Oklahoma astrophysicist and his Chinese collaborator have found two supermassive black holes in Markarian 231, the nearest quasar to Earth, using observations from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

The discovery of two supermassive black holes--one larger one and a second, smaller one--are evidence of a binary black hole and suggests that supermassive...

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