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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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Increasing productivity and optimizing processes when working materials using USP-lasers

Pulsar Photonics GmbH, a spin-off of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, has developed a tool system that significantly boosts the cost effectiveness of using ultrashort pulsed techniques to process materials by turning to a multi-beam approach. Users can employ the integrated measurement sensors to calibrate the tool and establish parameters in advance of material processing as well as to assure quality once the work has been completed. The experts will be presenting their tool system and multi-beam scanner to the public for the first time at the Hannover Messe.

Over the past few years, the use of ultrashort pulsed lasers in material processing has been riding a wave of success. Reasons include the laser’s outstanding...

11.03.2014 | nachricht Read more

More Flexibility for Steel Production

Siemens enables steel mills to adapt their production processes more flexibly to raw material prices and emission regulations.
The newly developed JET Process provides sufficient heat energy to melt a high proportion of scrap and sponge iron into liquid pig iron. As a result, steel... 27.01.2014 | nachricht Read more

High-quality whey proteins for foodstuffs

Whey resulting from cheese production contains valuable proteins that still often remain unused.
In the EU-funded project Whey2Food the University of Hohenheim and the Fraunhofer IGB, together with partners from industry, are investigating how high-quality... 17.01.2014 | nachricht Read more

Harnessing randomness to improve lasers

Developed at A*STAR, the first electrically pumped random lasers for mid-infrared radiation are set to enable applications in sensing and imaging
Randomly arranged items usually have poor optical properties. The rough—or random—surface of a frosted-glass window, for example, obscures the view of an... 17.01.2014 | nachricht Read more

Successful European Cooperation for Industrial Welding of Lightweight Structures

The Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and seven other partners have successfully completed the research project „LaWocs“. From December 2010 to November 2013, the national and international project partners worked intensely on „Laser transmission welding of thermoplastic composite structures“.
Lightweight construction with potential for aircraft, automobiles and ships

Goals connected with the field of environmental protection are ambitious – and they... 09.01.2014 | nachricht Read more

Decolorization of Acid Red 1 by Fenton-like process using acid-activated clay

Textile dyeing is a significant consumer of water and producer of contaminated aqueous waste stream. Without proper waste water treatment, the effluents discharged by these factories will harm the environment. Dyes, as they are concentrated in colour, represent potential harm to mankind and aquatic life.
Colored effluents can cause irritation to skin and mucous membrane, upper respiratory tract and severe headaches to mankind. The discharge of dyes into the... 17.12.2013 | nachricht Read more

Intense 2-color double X-ray laser pulses: a powerful tool to study ultrafast processes

A team working at the SACLA X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) in Japan has succeeded in generating ultra-bright, two-color X-ray laser pulses, for the first time in the hard X-ray region.
These light pulses with different wavelengths, whose time separation can be adjusted with attosecond accuracy, are very powerful tools to investigate the... 04.12.2013 | nachricht Read more

Process holds promise for production of synthetic gasoline

A chemical system developed by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago can efficiently perform the first step in the process of creating syngas, gasoline and other energy-rich products out of carbon dioxide.
A novel "co-catalyst" system using inexpensive, easy to fabricate carbon-based nanofiber materials efficiently converts carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, a... 03.12.2013 | nachricht Read more

Siemens Jet Process boosts flexibility of raw material use in converter steel making

- Scrap or sponge iron rates between 0 and 100 percent
- Blowing in coal and post-combustion supply additional energy
- Improved mixing boosts yield and energy efficiency
- Effective decarburization and desulfurization of liquid steel
With the Jet Process, Siemens Metals Technologies offers a solution for operating converters with up to 100 percent scrap and sponge iron. This enables... 27.11.2013 | nachricht Read more

Magnetic nanoparticles could aid heat dissipation

Particles suspended in cooling water could prevent hotspots in nuclear plant cooling systems and electronics.
Cooling systems generally rely on water pumped through pipes to remove unwanted heat. Now, researchers at MIT and in Australia have found a way of enhancing... 21.11.2013 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Key milestone for brown fat research with a ground-breaking MRI scan

The first MRI scan to show 'brown fat' in a living adult could prove to be an essential step towards a new wave of therapies to aid the fight against diabetes and obesity.

Researchers from Warwick Medical School and University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust used a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based method to...

Im Focus: World's first successful visualisation of key coenzyme

Japanese researchers have successfully developed the world's first imaging method for visualising the behaviour of nicotine-adenine dinucleotide derivative (NAD(P)H), a key coenzyme, inside cells. This feat could ultimately facilitate the diagnosis of cancer and liver dysfunction and help to elucidate the mechanisms of neurological disorders.  

A Japanese research team led by Drs. Hirokazu Komatsu and Katsuhiko Ariga of the International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, in collaboration with...

Im Focus: Earthquake simulation tops one quadrillion flops: Computational record on SuperMUC

A team of computer scientists, mathematicians and geophysicists at Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) and Ludwig-Maximillians Universitaet Muenchen (LMU) have – with the support of the Leibniz Supercomputing Center of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (LRZ) – optimized the SeisSol earthquake simulation software on the SuperMUC high performance computer at the LRZ to push its performance beyond the “magical” one petaflop/s mark – one quadrillion floating point operations per second.

Geophysicists use the SeisSol earthquake simulation software to investigate rupture processes and seismic waves beneath the Earth’s surface. Their goal is to...

Im Focus: Odd Tilts Could Make More Worlds Habitable

Pivoting planets that lean one way and then change orientation within a short geological time period might be surprisingly habitable, according to new modeling by NASA and university scientists affiliated with the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

The climate effects generated on these wobbling worlds could prevent them from turning into glacier-covered ice lockers, even if those planets are somewhat far...

Im Focus: Perfect nanospheres using ultrashort laser pulses

The Nanophotonics Group of the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed a method to print nanoparticles made of different materials with controlled, reproducible sizes and to precisely deposit these particles on a receiver substrate.

As a result, for the first time, the scientists succeeded in generating and positioning perfectly round silicon nanoparticles with a diameter of 165 nm. This...

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