Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


The mystery of cosmic oceans and dunes


Earth-like planets are more likely to orbit Sun-like stars rather than lower-mass stars

Simulations by researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology and Tsinghua University indicate that Earth-like planets are more likely to be found orbiting Sun-like stars rather than lower-mass stars that are currently targeted, in terms of water contents of planets.

Water mass fractions versus orbital distances of Earth-mass planets 90Myr after entering the pre-main sequence. a–c, Results from simulations of stars with 0.3 (top), 0.5 (middle) and 1 (bottom) solar masses without considering the pre-main sequence stellar luminosity evolution and water loss. d–f, Results considering the stellar luminosity evolution and water loss. The habitable zones of the stars in the main sequence phase are marked by blue shaded areas. Stellar masses are marked in the panels.

The search for habitable planets currently focuses on so-called M dwarfs - stars with less than half the mass of the Sun. These stars are thought to have more habitable orbiting planets that are easier to find compared with G dwarfs - stars that have a similar mass to the Sun. However, according to recent simulations by a collaborative research team composed of Shigeru Ida at Tokyo Tech and Feng Tian at Tsinghua University, M dwarf systems may not be the best places to look.

For planets to be habitable, they must orbit stars within the ‘habitable zone’ where it is not too hot or too cold. In addition, recent studies on habitability of planets suggest that the water-land ratio must be similar to the Earth. That is, the water mass fraction should not be far from that of the Earth’s (~0.01wt%): planets with too much water (> 1 wt%)—“ocean planets”—lead to an unstable climate and lack of nutrient supply; and water-poor planets like Venus “dune planets”—become too arid for inhabiting.

Whereas G dwarfs – stars with the mass of our Sun – keep almost constant luminosity during the ‘pre-main sequence’ of their evolution, the luminosity of M dwarfs decreases by more than an order of magnitude during this stage. This means that planets with the right amount of water at the right distance from M stars may become too arid from over-exposure during the higher-luminosity early pre-main sequence period, while ocean planets retain their large amount of water.

Ida and Tian simulated planet distributions around stars with 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 times the mass of the Sun. They then applied a model for water loss and accounted for the change in luminosity. They found that Earth-mass planets with Earth-like water contents occur 10–100 times less frequently around M dwarfs than around G dwarfs. They conclude, “We suggest that stars close to the size of the Sun should be the primary targets for detecting Earth-like planets.”


Planetary formation simulations

Planets are understood to form alongside stars. As matter condenses under gravity to form the star, the surrounding circulating matter begins to flatten into a protoplanetary disk, a little like a spun clump of dough flattening to form a pizza base. Matter in this disk coalesces to form planets.

Several complex and competing processes are in play during planetary formation. The initial mass of the coalescing planet, the distribution of material feeding into the formation of stars and surrounding systems, density, star luminosity, orbit and potential collisions are all factors that affect planetary formation and the final characteristics of the planet formed.

Models incorporating the various factors have been developed, tested against observations and augmented, making it possible to simulate the planetary bodies likely to form and their characteristics. However until this study nobody had modelled how the change in luminosity of M stars might affect the surface water content of planets in the habitable zone.

Planetary observations

As well as simulations there are a number of projects and facilities to provide data on real planets and their characteristics. Bulk density measurements and multiband spectral data allow planets with Earth-like water contents to be distinguished from ocean or dune planets by future observations.

Of the stars observed within 30 light years of the Sun, 60% are less than 0.3 the mass of the Sun, 35% are between 0.3 and 1 solar masses and 20% are between 0.6 and 1 solar mass. Missions and facilities that will be used in the search for Earth like planets around nearby stars over the next ten years include TESS and Plato.

Planetary simulation results

The simulations by Ida and Tian indicated that for 1000 stars of 0.3 solar masses there might be 69,000 orbiting planetary bodies, of which 5,000 had a similar mass to the Earth and 55 were in the habitable zone. Those in the habitable zone included 31 ocean planets. 23 dune planets and just 1 with Earth-like water content.

For 1000 stars with half the mass of the Sun the simulation produced 75,000 planetary bodies, of which more than 9000 had Earth-like masses, and 292 were in the habitable zone: 60 ocean planets; 220 dune planets and 12 with Earth-like water content.

Finally for 1000 simulated stars with a similar mass to the Sun, there were 38,000 planetary bodies, 8,000 with Earth-like masses and 407 in the inhabitable zone. Those in the habitable zone included 91 ocean planets and 45 dune planets, but 271 - the vast majority – had Earth-like water content.

Although the detailed numbers in the statistics are not important, Ida and Tian highlight the contrast in the fraction of planets in the habitable zones having Earth-like water content between Sun-like stars and lower-mass stars is significant. At the same time, they caveat that further studies are needed to determine how efficiently water is retained in the mantle, as well as the evolution of its release to the surface.

Authors: Feng Tian and Shigeru Ida
Title of Original Paper: Water contents of Earth-mass planets around M dwarfs
Journal: Nature Geoscience 8, March 2015
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2372

Further information
Miwako Kato, Asuka Suzuki
Center for Public Affairs and Communications, Tokyo Institute of Technology
2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
Tel: +81-3-5734-2975 Fax: +81-3-5734-3661

About Tokyo Institute of Technology
As one of Japan’s top universities, Tokyo Institute of Technology seeks to contribute to civilization, peace and prosperity in the world, and aims at developing global human capabilities par excellence through pioneering research and education in science and technology, including industrial and social management. To achieve this mission, we have an eye on educating highly moral students to acquire not only scientific expertise but also expertise in the liberal arts, and a balanced knowledge of the social sciences and humanities, all while researching deeply from basics to practice with academic mastery. Through these activities, we wish to contribute to global sustainability of the natural world and the support of human life.

Feng Tian and Shigeru Ida | Tokyo Institute of Technology

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Light-driven atomic rotations excite magnetic waves
24.10.2016 | Max-Planck-Institut für Struktur und Dynamik der Materie

nachricht Move over, lasers: Scientists can now create holograms from neutrons, too
21.10.2016 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Light-driven atomic rotations excite magnetic waves

Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion

Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

Im Focus: New Products - Highlights of COMPAMED 2016

COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.

In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Oasis of life in the ice-covered central Arctic

24.10.2016 | Earth Sciences

‘Farming’ bacteria to boost growth in the oceans

24.10.2016 | Life Sciences

Light-driven atomic rotations excite magnetic waves

24.10.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

More VideoLinks >>>