Groundbreaking images of the Sun captured by scientists at NJIT's Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) give a first-ever detailed view of the interior structure of umbrae - the dark patches in the center of sunspots - revealing dynamic magnetic fields responsible for the plumes of plasma that emerge as bright dots interrupting their darkness.
Their research is being presented this week at the first Triennial Earth-Sun Summit meeting between the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division and the American Geophysical Union's Space Physics and Aeronomy section in Indianapolis, Ind.
Groundbreaking images of the sun captured by scientists at NJIT's Big Bear Solar Observatory give a first-ever detailed view of the interior structure of umbrae -- the dark patches in the center of sunspots -- revealing dynamic magnetic fields responsible for the plumes of plasma that emerge as bright dots interrupting their darkness.
Credit: NJIT's Big Bear Solar Observatory
The high-resolution images, taken through the observatory's New Solar Telescope (NST), show the atmosphere above the umbrae to be finely structured, consisting of hot plasma intermixed with cool plasma jets as wide as 100 kilometers.
"We would describe these plasma flows as oscillating cool jets piercing the hot atmosphere. Until now, we didn't know they existed. While we have known for a long time that sunspots oscillate - moderate resolution telescopes show us dark shadows, or penumbral waves, moving across the umbra toward the edge of a sunspot - we can now begin to understand the underlying dynamics," said Vasyl Yurchyshyn, a research professor of physics at NJIT and the lead author of two recent journal articles based on the NST observations.
Called spikes, the oscillating jets result from the penetration of magnetic and plasma waves from the Sun's photosphere - the light-giving layer of its atmosphere - into the abutting chromosphere, which they reach by traveling outward along magnetic tubes that serve as energy conduits. "This process can be likened to a blowhole at a rocky beach, where relentless onshore waves jet sea water high into the air," Yurchyshyn said.
Sunspots are formed when strong magnetic fields rise up from the convection zone, a region beneath the photosphere that transfers energy from the interior of the Sun to its surface. At the surface, the magnetic fields concentrate into bundles, which prevent the hot rising plasma from reaching the surface. This energy deficit causes the magnetic bundles to cool down to temperatures about 1,000 degrees lower than their surroundings. They therefore appear darker against the hotter, brighter background.
"But the magnetic field is not a monolith and there are openings in the umbra from which plasma bursts out as lava does from a volcano's side vents. These plumes create the bright, nearly circular patches we call umbral dots," Yurchyshyn noted. "Sunspots that are very dark have strong magnetic fields and thus fewer openings."
Compact groups of fast-changing sunspots create tension in their magnetic systems, which at some point erupt to relieve the stress. It is those eruptions that cause intense "space weather" events in the Earth's magnetosphere affecting communications, power lines, and navigation systems.
"We had no sense of what happens inside an umbra until we were able to see it in the high-resolution images obtained with the world's largest solar telescope. These data revealed to us unprecedented details of small-scale dynamics that appear to be similar in nature to what we see in other parts of the Sun," Yurchyshyn said. "There is growing evidence that these dynamic events are responsible for the heating of coronal loops, seen in ultraviolet images as bright magnetic structures that jet out from the Sun's surface. This is a solar puzzle we have yet to solve."
Since it began operating in 2009, Big Bear's NST has given scientists a closer look at sunspot umbrae, among other solar regions. It has also allowed them to measure the shape of chromospheric spectral lines, enabling scientists to probe solar conditions.
"These measurements tell us about the speed, temperature, and pressure of the plasma elements we are observing, as well as the strength and the direction of the solar magnetic fields," said Yurchyshyn, who is also a distinguished scholar at the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute. "Thus we were able to find that spikes, or oscillating jets, are caused by chromospheric shocks, which are abrupt fluctuations in the magnetic field and plasma that constantly push plasma up along nearly the same magnetic channels."
The study on umbral spikes was published in the Astrophysical Journal in 2014.
In a second paper published in the Astrophysical Journal in 2015, he is presenting another set of NST observations, taking a closer look at the sunspot oscillations that occur every three minutes and are thought to produce bright umbral flashes - emissions of plasma heated by shock waves.
The NST takes snapshots of the Sun every 10 seconds, which are then strung together as a video to reveal fast-evolving small explosions, plasma flows and the movement of magnetic fields. "We were able to obtain photographs of these flashes of unique clarity that allowed us to follow their development inside the umbra," he said. Previously believed to be diffuse patches randomly distributed over the umbra, the researchers found their location is in fact not random. They mainly form along so-called sunspot umbral light bridges, which are very large openings in the sunspot magnetic fields that often split an umbra into two or more parts.
"Even more importantly, we found that umbral flash lanes tend to appear on the side of light bridges that face the center of the sunspot," he added. "This finding is significant because it indicates that sunspot oscillations may be driven by one energy source located under the umbra. There are simulations that appear to reproduce what we have observed, which is very encouraging. We, as a community, are finally in the position to be able to directly compare the observations and the state-of-the-art simulation results, which is the key to making further progress in our field."
One of the nation's leading public technological universities, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is a top-tier research university that prepares students to become leaders in the technology-dependent economy of the 21st century. NJIT's multidisciplinary curriculum and computing-intensive approach to education provide technological proficiency, business acumen and leadership skills. With an enrollment of more than 10,000 graduate and undergraduate students, NJIT offers small-campus intimacy with the resources of a major public research university. NJIT is a global leader in such fields as solar research, nanotechnology, resilient design, tissue engineering, and cyber-security, in addition to others.
Tracey Regan | EurekAlert!
Further reports about: > Jersey Institute of Technology > Technology > complex dynamics of sunspots > cores New Jersey Institute > dark > dark cores New Jersey > dynamics of sunspots dark > new solar telescope unveils > solar telescope unveils the > sunspots > sunspots dark cores > sunspots dark cores New > telescope unveils the complex > unveils the complex dynamics
Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods
19.10.2017 | California Institute of Technology
NASA team finds noxious ice cloud on saturn's moon titan
19.10.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences
19.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy