Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder have discovered microbes living in a toxic volcanic lake that may rank as one of the harshest environments on Earth. Their findings, published recently online, could guide scientists looking for signs of ancient life on Mars.
The team, led by CU Boulder Associate Professor Brian Hynek, braved second-degree burns, sulfuric acid fumes and the threat of eruptions to collect samples of water from the aptly-named Laguna Caliente. Nestled in Costa Rica's Poás Volcano, this body of water is 10 million times more acidic than tap water and can reach near boiling temperatures. It also resembles the ancient hot springs that dotted the surface of early Mars, Hynek said.
The Costa Rican lake can support life--but only barely. Hynek and his colleagues found microbes belonging to just a single species of bacteria in the lake water, a rock-bottom level of diversity.
"Even in an extremely harsh environment, there can still be life," said Hynek of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics and the Department of Geological Sciences. "But then there's very little life. Mars was just as extreme in its early history, so we should probably not expect to find evidence of large-scale biodiversity there."
Laguna Caliente is chaotic, with water temperatures that can swing wildly in the span of hours and magma channels running under the lake that kick off frequent, geyser-like eruptions.
"We're at the limits of what life on Earth can tolerate," Hynek said. "It's not somewhere you want to spend a lot of time because you'd probably get covered in boiling mud and sulfur from the eruptions."
To search for living organisms in this "fringe" environment, the researchers scanned samples of lake water for DNA. In research published this month in Astrobiology, they found the signature of one species of bacteria belonging to the genus Acidiphilium--a group of microbes that scientists have previously seen in toxic drainage from coal mines and other harsh locations.
"It's not uncommon to find an environment with no life, say in a volcano that's self-sterilizing," Hynek said. "But to find a single type of organism and not a whole community of organisms is very, very rare in nature."
If life did evolve on Mars, Hynek said, it would likely have survived in ways similar to the lake's bacterium--by processing the energy from iron- or sulfur-bearing minerals. Hynek has spent much of his career searching for places on Earth today that look like Mars did nearly four billion years ago, when liquid water was plentiful on the surface.
It's a hard task: Rampant volcanism during that period created volatile and mineral-rich pools of water, giving rise to "Yellowstones all over Mars," Hynek said.
In 2020, NASA is planning to send the Mars 2020 Rover to the Red Planet to hunt for fossil evidence of life. Hynek said that they should look first at these "Yellowstones."
Co-authors on the new study include CU Boulder undergraduate student Monique Antunovich who graduated in 2017; Karyn Rogers of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York; Geoffroy Avard of the National University of Costa Rica; and Guillermo Alvarado of the University of Costa Rica.
Daniel Strain | EurekAlert!
APEX takes a glimpse into the heart of darkness
25.05.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie
First chip-scale broadband optical system that can sense molecules in the mid-IR
24.05.2018 | Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science
The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.
Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...
A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.
The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...
At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.
At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...
There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?
At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
25.05.2018 | Event News
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering
25.05.2018 | Life Sciences