Astrophysicist may have a solution to 'candle and lighthouse' problem
One of the biggest quests in astrophysics is to find Earth-like planets around other stars - places where life may exist. Regular telescopes are not good at directly imaging such small objects because a host star's light generally drowns out the relatively dimmer light of a potential planet.
The CID device has the ability to detect dim objects even behind Sirius, the brightest star in our galaxy. The "A" image shows the Sirius field and the sky coordinates in green. Red dots represent already cataloged objects. The red line is the motion of Sirius. The "B" image shows faint objects detected near Sirius.
Credit: Florida Institute of Technology
But a new development in space imaging may solve that vexing problem.
A study led by Florida Institute of Technology astrophysicist Daniel Batcheldor has demonstrated that a charge injection device, or CID, has the ability to capture light from objects tens of millions of times fainter than another object in the same picture. An exoplanet next to bright star is one such example. This ability is a result of how the CID is used as a type of camera: each individual pixel works independently and uses a special indexing system. Very bright pixels get addressed very quickly, while the faint pixels are allowed to carry on gathering the fainter light.
"If this technology can be added to future space missions, it may help us make some profound discoveries regarding our place in the universe," Batcheldor said.
The study's findings were reported in the Jan. 18, 2016, edition of the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.
To study exoplanets in detail, scientists are forced to make observations of these very faint objects next to bright stars. The situation is often described as the candle-next-to-the-lighthouse problem, though in reality is thousands of times worse. "Current instrument technology is very complex and expensive and still a ways off from achieving direct images of Earth-like planets," Batcheldor said.
With a grant from the American Astronomical Society, Batcheldor and several graduate students in the Physics and Space Sciences Department led the study using a CID on Florida Tech's 0.8-meter Ortega telescope. They were able to pick out objects 70 million times fainter through the glare of Sirius, the brightest star in our night sky. That's over one thousand times better than an off-the-shelf astronomical camera.
The fact that a faint object could be accurately detected through the less-than-ideal, thick Florida atmosphere makes the observations made by the CID more exciting. Batcheldor plans to test the CID later this year at a telescope on the Canary Islands, and a prototype for a CID is slated for testing on the International Space Station later this year. In both cases, the CIDs are being built by Thermo-Fisher Scientific.
Batcheldor's solution is of potential interest to scientists because it is relatively inexpensive compared to other ideas, such as an external occulter like a star shade, which would require multiple, complicated components working in tandem in space for getting a glimpse of just a few small, Earth-sized exoplanets.
"Personally, I like very simple, straightforward solutions, especially when there is a complex problem," he said. "The CID is able to look at a very bright source next to a very faint source and not experience much of the image degradation you would normally experience with a typical camera."
Adam Lowenstein | EurekAlert!
Significantly more productivity in USP lasers
06.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Lasertechnik ILT
Shape matters when light meets atom
05.12.2016 | Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
06.12.2016 | Materials Sciences
06.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
06.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering