Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Golden Approach to High-speed DNA Reading

06.11.2014

Berkeley Researchers Create Unique Graphene Nanopores with Optical Antennas for DNA Sequencing

High-speed reading of the genetic code should get a boost with the creation of the world’s first graphene nanopores – pores measuring approximately 2 nanometers in diameter – that feature a “built-in” optical antenna.


Schematic drawing of graphene nanopore with self-integrated optical antenna (gold) that enhances the optical readout signal (red) of DNA as it passes through a graphene nanopore.

Researchers with Berkeley Lab and the University of California (UC) Berkeley have invented a simple, one-step process for producing these nanopores in a graphene membrane using the photothermal properties of gold nanorods.

“With our integrated graphene nanopore with plasmonic optical antenna, we can obtain direct optical DNA sequence detection,” says Luke Lee, the Arnold and Barbara Silverman Distinguished Professor at UC Berkeley.

Lee and Alex Zettl, a physicist who holds joint appointments with Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division and UC Berkeley’s Physics Department, were the leaders of a study in which a hot spot on a graphene membrane formed a nanopore with a self-integrated optical antenna. The hot spot was created by photon-to-heat conversion of a gold nanorod.

“We believe our approach opens new avenues for simultaneous electrical and optical nanopore DNA sequencing and for regulating DNA translocation,” says Zettl, who is also a member of the Kavli Energy Nanoscience Institute (Kavli ENSI).

Nanopore sequencing of DNA, in which DNA strands are threaded through nanoscale pores and read one letter at a time, has been touted for its ability to make DNA sequencing a faster and more routine procedure. Under today’s technology, the DNA letters are “read” by an electrical current passing through nanopores fabricated on a silicon chip.

Trying to read electrical signals from DNA passing through thousands of nanopores at once, however, can result in major bottlenecks. Adding an optical component to this readout would help eliminate such bottlenecks.

“Direct and enhanced optical signals are obtained at the junction of a nanopore and its optical antenna,” says Lee. “Simultaneously correlating this optical signal with the electrical signal from conventional nanopore sequencing provides an added dimension that would be an enormous advantage for high-throughput DNA readout.”

A key to the success of this effort is the single-step photothermal mechanism that enables the creation of graphene nanopores with self-aligned plasmonic optical antennas. The dimensions of the nanopores and the optical characteristics of the plasmonic antenna are tunable, with the antenna functioning as both optical signal transducer and enhancer.

The atomically thin nature of the graphene membrane makes it ideal for high resolution, high throughput, single-molecule DNA sequencing. DNA molecules can be labeled with fluorescent dyes so that each base-pair fluoresces at a signature intensity as it passes through the junction of the nanopore and its optical antenna.

“In addition, either the gold nanoplasmonic optical antenna or the graphene can be functionalized to be responsive to different base-pair combinations,” Lee says. “The gold plasmonic optical antenna can also be functionalized to enable the direct optical detection of RNA, proteins, protein-protein interactions, DNA-protein interactions, and other biological systems.”

The results of this study were reported in Nano Letters in a paper titled “Graphene Nanopore with a Self-Integrated Optical Antenna.” Lee is the corresponding author. Other co-authors in addition to Zettl were SungWoo Nam, Inhee Choi, Chi-cheng Fu, Kwanpyo Kim, SoonGweon Hong and Yeonho Choi.

This research was primarily supported by the DOE Office of Science.

Lynn Yarris | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://newscenter.lbl.gov/2014/11/05/golden-approach-to-high-speed-dna-reading/

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions
27.04.2017 | DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

nachricht SwRI-led team discovers lull in Mars' giant impact history
26.04.2017 | Southwest Research Institute

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>