Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Climate Control in Termite Mounds


Periodic fluctuations in outside temperature drive ventilation in termite mounds because of the design of the design of the mounds, according to researchers at Harvard and MIT

When they make their way into homes, some species of termites can be destructive pests. Their fungus-harvesting relatives in Africa and Asia, however, are known for their construction prowess, collectively building elaborate structures. The striking mounds built by some species of termites are thought to help regulate humidity and respiratory gas levels inside their subterranean nests, but determining how they do so has proven difficult to study.

Credit: Hunter King and Sam Ocko

A mound of the termite species Odontotermes obesus in Southern India. Respiratory flows inside are driven by daily oscillations in ambient temperature.

Now, researchers from Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have found that fluctuations in outside temperature over the course of the day create convection currents within the mounds that ventilate the termites’ living space. They will present their results at the 67th annual meeting of the American Physical Society (APS) Division of Fluid Dynamics, held November 23-25 in San Francisco.

Termite mounds are built from compacted soil and contain a network of tunnels that transport gases from the nest to the mound surface, where they diffuse through many tiny pores that also allow outside gasses to enter the mound. Because the individual pores are so small, however, the mound resists large-scale pressure-driven airflow such as that induced by wind—the ventilation must instead be driven by some other factor.

... more about:
»AIP »APS »Climate »Fluid »airflow »respiration »species »temperature »termite

To determine what this factor could be, the researchers studied Odontotermes obesus, a species of mound-building termite found in southern India. They measured airflow speed and direction inside both living and dead mounds, as well as carbon dioxide concentration. Carbon dioxide levels rose during the day and then, as the temperatures dropped at night, fell sharply. Air velocity also fluctuated in accordance with these daily temperature cycles.

The researchers linked this data to the termite mound’s structure: a central chimney flanked by smaller buttresses referred to as flutes. They proposed that exposed flutes respond quickly to changing temperatures throughout the day, while the temperature in the internal chimney remains relatively constant.

“When the flutes are warm and the center is cool, air expands and rises in the flutes, contracts and sinks in the chimney, and vice versa,” explained Hunter King, a researcher from Harvard University’s School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. “The result is a twice-daily inverting convection cell within the mound that brings stale air from the nest to the surfaces of the mound.”

Their results provide an answer to a longstanding biological mystery. “The termite mound, a striking example of decentralized swarm construction, represents a surprisingly clever solution--an external lung for collective respiration, which relies on temperature fluctuations rather than constant heating or direct external forcing,” said King.

King and his collaborators, Sam Ocko and L. Mahadevan, plan to carry out similar tests on the mounds of other termite species to determine whether the mechanism is generalizable. They also hope that their discovery could provide inspiration for human-engineered systems. “Certain architects may find in these termites applications for passive human architecture,” said King.

The presentation, "Diurnal respiration of a termite mound," is at 9:44 a.m. PT on Tuesday, November 25, 2014 in the Moscone West Convention Center, Room 3012. ABSTRACT:"

The 67th Annual Division of Fluid Dynamics Meeting will be held at Moscone West Convention Center in San Francisco, Calif. from Nov. 23-25, 2014. More meeting information:

Any journalist, full-time or freelance, may attend the conference free of charge. Please email: and include "DFD Press Registration" in the subject line.

Workspace will be provided on-site during the meeting. The week before the meeting, news, videos and graphics will be made available on the Virtual Press Room:

A press briefing featuring a selection of newsworthy research talks will be streamed live from the conference at 1:00pm PST on Monday, November 24 in room Foothill F of the San Francisco Marriott Marquis. For more information,

The Division of Fluid Dynamics (DFD) of the American Physical Society (APS) exists for the advancement and diffusion of knowledge of the physics of fluids with special emphasis on the dynamical theories of the liquid, plastic and gaseous states of matter under all conditions of temperature and pressure. DFD Website: 

Contact Information
Jason Bardi
Director, Media Relations
Phone: 301-209-3091
Mobile: 240-535-4954

Jason Bardi | newswise

Further reports about: AIP APS Climate Fluid airflow respiration species temperature termite

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Physicists made crystal lattice from polaritons
20.03.2018 | ITMO University

nachricht Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions
20.03.2018 | University of California - Berkeley

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions

Oceans formed before Tharsis and evolved together, shaping climate history of Mars

A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...

Im Focus: Tiny implants for cells are functional in vivo

For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach using artificial organelles as cellular implants offers new potential in treating a range of diseases, as the authors report in an article published in Nature Communications.

In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. In the networks of...

Im Focus: Locomotion control with photopigments

Researchers from Göttingen University discover additional function of opsins

Animal photoreceptors capture light with photopigments. Researchers from the University of Göttingen have now discovered that these photopigments fulfill an...

Im Focus: Surveying the Arctic: Tracking down carbon particles

Researchers embark on aerial campaign over Northeast Greenland

On 15 March, the AWI research aeroplane Polar 5 will depart for Greenland. Concentrating on the furthest northeast region of the island, an international team...

Im Focus: Unique Insights into the Antarctic Ice Shelf System

Data collected on ocean-ice interactions in the little-researched regions of the far south

The world’s second-largest ice shelf was the destination for a Polarstern expedition that ended in Punta Arenas, Chile on 14th March 2018. Oceanographers from...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

Virtual reality conference comes to Reutlingen

19.03.2018 | Event News

Ultrafast Wireless and Chip Design at the DATE Conference in Dresden

16.03.2018 | Event News

International Tinnitus Conference of the Tinnitus Research Initiative in Regensburg

13.03.2018 | Event News

Latest News

Physicists made crystal lattice from polaritons

20.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions

20.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Thawing permafrost produces more methane than expected

20.03.2018 | Earth Sciences

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>